Robin revisited

Robin

Erythacus rubecula Robin or Redbreast, by J. Gould and H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: John Gould, 1866), livr. 10, pl. 48. Collated and repr. (1873), vol. 2, pl. 48.

[This is an update of a previous post.]

The genus name Erithacus is Latinized from Greek εριθακος, erithakos, which is a bird mentioned by Aristotle, in Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 9.632b27–30, where he describes Robins (εριθακος) as the ‘winter version’ of (Black) Redstarts (φοινικουρος, phoinikouros), birds that appear as Robins in winter and as Redstarts in summer – a misidentification of migration, as Redstarts would migrate south at about the same time when Robins would move in from the north.

In the binomial era, it was G. Cuvier who first mentioned Erithacus as a genus in Leçons d’anatomie comparée (Paris: Baudouin, 1800), 1, tab. 2. As of 2020 Erithacus is a monotypic genus since Ryukyu Robin and Japanese Robin have been added to the reinstated Larvivora (as Larvivora komadori and Larvivora akahige, respectively), see forthcoming post.

European Robin Erithacus rubecula = Little Red Robin – from Latin ruber = red, and Latin -culus = diminutive suffix – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Impensis Direct. Laurentii Salvii, 1758), 1: 188, as Motacilla Rubecula, where Motacilla = Wagtail from Latin mōtāre = to keep moving, and Latin cilla = diminutive, the latter mistaken for ‘tail’ in interpreting ‘Sic … motacilla,… quod semper movet caudam’ [Likewise … the wagtail,… because it is always moving its tail], from Marcus Terentius Varro‘s De Lingua Latina [On the Latin Language], trans. Roland G. Kent (London: William Heinemann/Cambridge, MA: Harcard University Press, 1938) 1: 5.11.76.

The following subspecies are recognized by the IOC:

  • E. r. melophilus = Song-loving Robin – from Greek μελος, melos = song, tune, and Greek φιλος, philos = loving – type specimen collected by W. Burton near the Barnet, London, United Kingdom, 14 December 1896 (reported by Ernst Hartert in ‘Types of Birds in the Tring Museum’, Novitates Zoologicae 27, no. 2 (1920): 474), described by Hartert in ‘Aus den Wanderjahren eines Naturforschers. Reisen und Forschungen in Afrika, Asien und Amerika’, Novitates Zoologicae 8, no. 3 (1901): 317, as Erithacus rubecula melophilus (for elaboration see a previous post);
  • E. r. rubecula = the nominate form;
  • E. r. superbus = Magnificent Robin – from Latin superbus = superb, splendid, magnificent, from Latin super- = over, above (prefix) – collected by A. König on Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, winter 1888, description published in ‘Vorläufige Notiz über zwei neue Vogelarten von den Canarischen Inseln’, Journal für Ornithologie 37, no. 186 (1889): 183, as Erithacus superbus;
  • E. r. marionae = Marion’s Robin – for Marion Steinbüchel – type specimen collected by R. von Thanner near Moya, Canary Islands, Spain, (most likely) April 1909, described by Christian Dietzen, J. Pieter Michels and Michael Wink in ‘Formal Description of a New Subspecies of the European Robin from Gran Canaria Island, Spain (Aves: Muscicapidae: Erithacus rubecula marionae subsp. nov.)’, Open Ornithology Journal 8 (2015): 38–42 – IOC added subspecies, 2015 recommendation: Dietzen et al. 2015;
  • E. r. witherbyi = Witherby’s Robin – for Harry F. Witherby – type specimen collected by Witherby near Hammam Righa (as Hammam r’Hira), Algeria, 27 April 1904 (reported by Ernst Hartert in ‘Types of Birds in the Tring Museum’, Novitates Zoologicae 27, no. 2 (1920): 474), described by Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna. Systematische Übersicht der in Europa, Nord-Asien und der Mittelmeerregion vorkommenden Vögel (Berlin: R. Friedländer und Sohn, 1910), Heft 6, 753–754. Collated as vol. 1, 753–754, as Erithacus rubecula witherbyi;
  • E. r. valens = Powerful Robin – from Latin valēns = strong, vigorous, healthy – type specimen collected by A.P. Gunali in the Crimean Nature Reserve, Crimea, 19 September 1923, described by L.A. Portenko in Птицы СССР [Birds of the Soviet Union], Guides for the Fauna of the USSR 54 (Moscow: Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sciences, 1954), 3: 193, as Erithacus rubecula valens;
  • E. r. caucasicus = Caucasus Robin – for Caucasus – described by S.A. Buturlin in ‘Neue Formen aus dem Kaukasus’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte 15, no. 1 (1907): 9, as Erithacus rubecula caucasicus;
  • E. r. hyrcanus = Hyrcanian Robin – for Hyrcania – described by W.T. Blanford in ‘Notes on the Synonymy of some Indian and Persian Birds, with Descriptions of Two New Species from Persia’, Ibis, 3rd ser., 4, no. 13 (1874): 79, as Erithacus hyrcanus;
  • E. r. tataricus = Tatar Robin – for the area populated by people speaking the Tatar language – described by Hermann Grote in ‘Kurze Mitteilungen: Erithacus rubecula tataricus nov. subsp.’Ornithologische Monatsberichte 36, no. 2 (1928): 52.

Cranes

Grus

Grus, by L. Reichenbach, in Avium systema naturale. Das natürliche System der Vögel (Dresden and Leipzig: Expedition der vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1849), pl. 21. All subsequent illustrations refer to this plate.

Gruidae as a family name for Cranes was first used by Nicholas Aylward Vigors in a paper read to the Linnean Society of London, 3 December 1823, published as ‘Observations on the Natural Affinities That Connect the Orders and Families of Birds’, Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 14, pt 3 (1825): 413 (mentioned), 488 (descr.).

Four genera of extant cranes are being distinguished: Balearica, Leucogeranus, Antigone and Grus.

Two additional genera are being embedded within Grus by the IOC, but might well become split following Carey Krajewski, Justin T. Sipiorski and Frank E. Anderson, ‘Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences and the Phylogeny of Cranes (Gruiformes: Gruidae)’, Auk 127, no. 2 (2010): 440–452:

This leaves the following 15 species.

Balearica

Bushtits

The Aeghitalidae family epithet was first mentioned by L. Reichenbach in Avium systema naturale. Das natürliche System der Vögel (Dresden and Leipzig: Expedition der vollständigsten Naturgeschichte, 1850), pl. 62, as Aeghitalinae, where the stem originates in Aeghitalus, synonym of Remiz (from Polish remiz = Penduline Tit, first used by Feliks Paweł Jarocki in Spis ptaków w gabinecie Zoologicznym Królewsko Warszawskiego Uniwersytetu [List of birds in the Zoological Cabinet of the Royal Warsaw University] (Warsaw: Zawadzki i Węcki, 1819), 21).

Considered to be part of the Paridae family for a long time, now they are classified to be allied to Old World warblers s.l., allied families varying according to source. The IOC recognizes three genera: Aeghitalos, Leptopoecile and Psaltriparus.

Long-tailed Tit

Juv. Long-tailed Tits. Illustration: J. Gould & W. Hart, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 29.

Aegithalos

Aegithalos = tit(mouse) – from Greek αἰγιθαλός, aigithalós = tit(mouse), mentioned by Aristotle, in Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, vol. 4 of The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 592b17–22, with specific reference to ὀρεινὸς, oreinos = hill or mountain tit(mouse) = Long-tailed Tit (oreinos is translated as orinus in History of Animals, In Ten Books, trans. Richard Cresswell (London: Bell, 1897), 202) – genus mentioned by Jean Hermann (as Johannis Hermann) in Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur, ed. Frédéric-Louis Hammer (as Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer) (Argentorati [Strasbourg]: Koenig, 1804), 214, ascribed to Pipra ? europaea, which, according to David W. Snow in ‘Family Aegithalidae’, in Raymond A. Paynter Jr. (ed.), Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters (Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1967), vol. 12, 52, is a synonym of Parus caudatus of Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 190.

  • Long-tailed TitAegithalos caudatus = Long-tailed Tit – from Latin cauda = tail, and Latin -ātus = possessive adjectival suffix – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 190, as Parus caudatus, where Parus = tit(mouse), used by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 189;
    • (HBWAlive: Northern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. caudatus = the nominate form;
    • A. c. rosaceus = Rosy Tit – from Latin rosa = rose, and Latin‎ -āceus = resembling, used as relational adjectival suffix – brief description in note sent to the 404th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 8 December 1937 by G.M. Mathews, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 58/409 (1938), 44 (indexed as ‘Note on the Name of the British Long-tailed Tit (Ægithalus caudatus rosaceus)’), the main reason of the note, however, was a change of name from Mecistura rosea Rose-mufflin (quoted by Mathews as Rose Muffler) assigned by Edward Blyth in Gilbert White, The Natural History of Selborne, with Its Antiquities, Naturalist’s Calendar, &c., ed. Edward Blyth (London: Orr & Smith, 1836), 111n (used as a synonym of Linnaeus’s Parus caudatus), where Mecistura = longest tail (from Greek μῆκος, mêkos = long, Greek adjectival suffix (interfix)‎ -ρός, -rós, and Greek ουρά, ourá = tail), listed by W.E. Leach in Systematic Catalogue of the Specimens of the Indigenous Mammalia and Birds That Are Preserved in the British Museum: With Their Localities and Authorities (London: Taylor, 1816), 17, as Mecistura vagans Wandering Tailpie (where vagans = wandering, from Latin vagāns = rambling), a nomen nudum;
    • Long-tailed Tit

      Long-tailed Tits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Great Britain (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 28.
    • (HBWAlive: Western Long-tailed Tit) A. c. europaeus = European Tit – for Europe, from Latin Eurōpa, from Greek Εὐρώπη, Eurṓpē, and Latin -eus = adjectival suffix – Jean Hermann (as Johannis Hermann) in Observationes zoologicae quibus novae complures, aliaeque animalium species describuntur et illustrantur, ed. Frédéric-Louis Hammer (as Fridericus Ludovicus Hammer) (Argentorati [Strasbourg]: Koenig, 1804), 214, as Pipra ? europaea;
    • A. c. aremoricus = Armorican Tit – for Armorica (present-day Brittany), from (reconstructed) Gaulish Aremorika = place by the sea – type specimen collected by Hugh Whistler near Loudéac (as Loudiac), 21 October 1928, description sent to the 326th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, held in London, 13 March 1929, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 49/331 (1929), 87–88 (indexed as ‘Description of a New Race of Long-tailed Tit (Ægithalos caudatus aremoricus)’);
    • A. c. taiti = Tait’s Tit – for William C. Tait, ornithologist of Portugal – type specimen collected near Coimbra, Portugal, October 1886, described by Collingwood Ingram in ‘Description of a New Form of Long-tailed Tit’, Zoologist, 4th ser., 17/862 (1913), 137, as Ægithalus caudatus taiti;
    • A. c. irbii = Irby’s Tit – for Howard Irby – collected by Irby in Andalusia, ‘near Gibraltar’, Spain, described by R.B. Sharpe and H.E. Dresser in a paper presented to the Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 18 April 1871, entitled ‘On a New Species of Long-tailed Titmouse from Southern Europe’, published in Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London for the Year 1871, 1871/20, 312–313, as Acredula irbii, where Acredula is of disputed origin, likely from Latin ācer = sharp, in reference to the shrill calls, first used as a genus name by Carl Ludwig Koch (as Karl Ludwig Koch) in System der baierischen Zoologie. Die Säugthiere und Vögel Baierns. Zum Gebrauch als Taschenbuch (Nürnberg: Steinische Buchhandlung, 1816), 199–200, without etymology;
    • A. c. italiae = Italian Tit – for Italy – type specimen collected by Odoardo Ferragni near Cremona, Italy, September 1907, description presented to the 163rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 14 December 1910, by F.C.R. Jourdain, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 27/165 (1910), 39 (indexed as ‘Exhibition and Description of a New Subspecies of Titmouse (Ægithalus caudatus italiæ)’);
    • A. c. siculus = Sicilian Tit – for Sicily, Italy, and the Sicels, from Latin siculus = Sicilian, from Siculī = Sicels – collected by Joseph I.S. Whitaker in Bosco di Fienzza, Sicily, 3 February 1901, on whose behalf the description was presented to the 27th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 20 March 1901, by W.R. Ogilvie Grant, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 11/78 (1901), 52 (indexed as Whitaker, ‘Acredula sicula, n. sp.’), the accompanying, extended description was published in ‘Further Information on Two Recently Described Species of Passerine Birds’, Ibis, 8th ser., 2/5 (1902), 54–58;
    • A. c. macedonicus = Macedonian Tit – for Macedonia – collected by Th. Krüper on Mount Olympus, Macedonia, 1891(?), description presented to the 3rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 21 December 1892, by T. Salvadori and H.E. Dresser, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 1/4 (1892), 15 (indexed as Dresser, ‘Acredula macedonica, sp. n.’, and Salvadori, ‘Acredula macedonica, sp. n.’), solely assigned to Dresser, whereupon an apologetic note was published by R. Bowdler Sharpe in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 1/5 (1893), 23, reinstating Salvadori as coauthor on the species, followed by an explanation of the joint work and extended description by Dresser in ‘On Acredula caudata and Its Allied Forms’, Ibis, 6th ser., 5/18 (1893), 240–241;
    • A. c. tephronotus = Ash-backed Tit – from Greek τεφρός, tephrós = ash-coloured, from τέφρα, téphra = ash, and Greek νῶτον, nôton = back – collected by Thomas Robson near ‘Havancore’, west Anatolia, present-day Turkey, December 1864(?), described by Albert Günther in ‘Description of a New Species of Long-tailed Titmouse from Asia Minor’, Ibis, ns, 1/1 (1893), 95–98, as Orites tephronotus, where Orites = mountaineer, from Greek ὄρος, óros = mountain, used by Paul Möhring (as Pavlo Henrico Gerardo Moehringio) in Avium genera (Bremae [Bremen]: Rump, 1752), 45;
    • A. c. tauricus = Crimean Tit – for Crimea, from Latin Taurica = Crimea, from Greek Ταυρικῆ, Taurikê = Crimea – type specimen collected in the woods of the Crimean Mountains (‘sylvis montium Yaïla’), description sent to be presented to the 94th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 18 February 1903, by M. Menzbier, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 13/95 (1903), 49 (indexed as ‘On New Species of Paridae from the Crimea’), as Acredula rosea taurica;
    • A. c. major = Greater Tit – from Latin maior = greater – type specimen collected by Gustav Radde from the Transcaucasian regions of Lankaran (Germanized as Lenkoran), present-day Azerbaijan, and Tiblisi (as Tiflis), present-day Georgia, description published in Radde, Ornis Caucasica: Die Vogelwelt des Kaukasus. Systematisch und biologisch-geographisch beschrieben (Kassel: Fischer, 1884), 144, as Acredula tephronota var. major;
    • (HBWAlive: Southern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. alpinus = Alpine Tit – from Latin alpīnus = alpine – described by Carl Hablitz (as Carl Hablizl) in ‘Bemerkungen in der persischen Landschaft Gilan und den gilanischen Gebirgen‘, in P.S. Pallas (ed.), Neue nordische Beyträge zur physikalischen und geographischen Erd- und Völkerbeschreibung, Naturgeschichte und Oekonomie (St. Petersburg: Logan, 1783), vol. 4, 49–50, as Parus alpinus;
    • A. c. passekii = Passek’s Tit – for H.P. Passek, Russian consul in Busher (as Bender-Buschir), Iran (then Persia) – described by N. Zarudny (as N. Sarudny) in ‘Beschreibung zweier neuen Formen aus süd-west Persien’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 12/10 (1904), 164, as Acredula tephronota passekii;
    • (HBWAlive: Eastern Long-tailed Tit) A. c. trivirgatus = Three-striped Tit – from Latin prefix tri- = three, and Latin virgātus = striped – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck and Hermann Schlegel in ‘Animalia vertebrata: Aves’, in Ph.Fr. von Siebold, Fauna Japonica (Lugduni Batavorum [Leiden]: Arnz, 1848), fasc. 5, pl. 34 (ill.), fasc. 6 (text), collated and republ. as Ph.Fr. von Siebold (as Ph.Fr. de Siebold), C.J. Temmink, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna japonica (Lugduni Batavorum: Arnz, 1850), vol. 4, 71, pl. 34, as La mésange à longue queue du Japon Parus (Megisturus) trivirgatus, where Megisturus seems to be a variant spelling of Mecisturus (or Mecistura);
    • A. c. kiusiuensis = Kyushu Tit – for Kyushu, Japan, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Nagamichi Kuroda near Imazu, Kyushu, Japan, 10 September 1918, described in ‘Description of Two Apparently New Forms of Aegithalos caudatus from Japan and Korea’, Auk, 40/2 (1923), 313, as Aegithalos caudatus kiusiuensis;
    • A. c. magnus = Great Long-tailed Tit – from Latin magnus = great – type specimen collected by P.L. Jouy near Seoul, Korea, described by Austin H. Clark ‘Eighteen New Species and One New Genus of Birds from Eastern Asia and the Aleutian Islands’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 32/1539 (1907), 475, as Acredula trivirgata magna;
  • Silver-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: Silver-throated Tit) – Aegithalos glaucogularis = Glaucous-throated Tit – from Latin glaucus = glaucous, from Greek γλαυκος, glaukos = glaucous, and from Latin gularis = throated, from Latin gula = throat – type specimen shot near Shanghai, China, remained in the collection of John Gould, whose description was published in his Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 69 (text on opp. p.), as Mecistura glaucogularis (the plate mentions Mecistura glaucugularis, either a proofreading error or an error of illustrator H.C. Richter, even though Gould is named too) – another description of (the same) specimen in Gould’s collection was read by Frederic Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) glaucogularis – both publications were issued in the same month, though Moore’s was dated 11 April and Gould’s no date in April, thus assigned 30th, therefore Moore takes priority – by the time the trinomial concept had been embraced fully, renamed Aegithalos caudatus glaucogularis by C.E. Hellmayr in Paridae, Sittidae und Certhiidae (Das Tierreich: Eine Zusammenstellung und Kennzeichnung der rezenten Tierformen, ed. Franz Eilhard Schulze, Lfg. 18; Berlin: Friedländer, 1903), 118 – split from Aegithalos caudatus, 2008 recommendation: Simon Harrap, ‘Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)’, in Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie eds., Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 13. Penduline-tits to Shrikes (Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2008), 79;

    Silver-throated Bushtit

    Silver-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 69.
    • A. g. vinaceus = Vinaceous Bushtit – from Latin vīnum = wine, and Latin -āceus = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Armand David in the mountains of ‘Thibet chinois’, described by J. Verreaux in ‘Note sur les espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux receuillis par M. l’Abbé Armand David dans les montagnes du Thibet chinois’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 6 (1871), 39, as Mecistura vinacea;
    • A. g. glaucogularis = the nominate form;
  • White-cheeked Bushtit (HBWAlive: White-cheeked Tit) – Aegithalos leucogenys = White-cheeked Tit – Latinized from Greek λευκός, leukós = white, and Greek γένῡς, génūs = jaw, mouth – collected by William Griffith near ‘Balu Chughur’, Afghanistan, described by Frederic Moore in Thomas Horsfield and Moore, A Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Hon. East India Company (London: Allen, 1854), vol. 1, 374–375, as Orites leucogenys – the description with an additional paragraph read by Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) leucogenys, although dated 1854 it was published in 1855, wherefore the description in the Catalogue takes priority;
  • White-cheeked Bushtit

    White-cheeked Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 66.
  • Black-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: Black-throated Tit) – Aegithalos concinnus = Elegant Tit – from Latin concinnus = neat, elegant – type specimen collected by T.C. Eyton near Zhoushan (as Chusan), described by John Gould in Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 65 (text on opp. p.), as Psaltria concinna Elegant Tit, where Psaltria = player (fem.) of a plucked, stringed instrument, e.g. lute, harp, from Latin psaltria = lutist, harpist (fem.), first used by C.J. Temminck and G.M.J. Meiffren Laugier (as Le Baron Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse) Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1836), livr. 101, pl. 600, collated and republ. as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1838), vol. 3, opp. pl. 600 (no page numbers, but p. 89);

    Black-throated Bushtit

    Black-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 65.
    • A. c. iredalei = Iredale’s Tit – for Tom Iredale – at the 11 January 1831 Meeting of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, N.A. Vigors presented type specimen from the collection of John Gould, originating from the Himalayas (possibly from Shimla, Himachal Pradesh, India), description published in Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, pt 1 (1831), 23 (indexed as ‘Observations on a Collection of Birds from the Himalayan Mountains, with Characters of New Genera and Species’), as Parus erythrocephalus = Red-headed Tit, Latinized from Greek ἐρυθρός, eruthrós = red, and κεφάλι, kefáli = head – however, Parus eythrocephalus was preoccupied in Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), vol. 1, 191 – renamed by E.C. Stuart Baker at the 250th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, held in London, 13 October 1920, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/253 (1920), 8 (indexed as ‘On New Names and Descriptions of New Subspecies of Indian Birds: — Ægithaliscus concinna iredalei, nom. n., Chloropsis aurifrons davisoni, nom. n., Hypothymis azurea sykesi, nom. n., Pellorneum ruficeps jonesi, subsp. n., and Turnix javanica leggei, subsp. n.’), as Ægithaliscus concinna iredalei, where Ægithaliscus is an alternative spelling of Aegithalos, with Latin -iscus = adjectival suffix, meant to be a diminutive form of Aegithalos by Jean Cabanis in Museum Heineanum: Verzeichniss der ornithologischen Sammlung des Oberamtmann Ferdinand Heine, auf Gut St. Burchard vor Halberstadt (Halberstadt: Frantz, 1851), pt 1, 90 (‘Zwergmeise’) – HBWAlive: Red-headed Tit Aegithalos iredalei iredalei;
    • Aegithalos concinnus iredalei

      Aegithalos concinnus iredalei. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 64.
    • A. c. rubricapillus = Red-capped Tit – from Latin rubrī = red, and Latin capillus = hair – type specimen collected in Sikkim, ‘east of the Mishmi Hills’ [sic], November (1???), part of the Seebohm Collection, description sent by C.B. Ticehurst the 295th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 14 October 1925, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 46/299 (1925), 22 (indexed as ‘Descriptions of New Races of Himalayan Birds: Ægithaliscus concinna rubricapillus, Dendrocitta formosæ occidentalis and Seicercus burkii whistleri‘) – HBWAlive: Red-headed Tit Aegithalos iredalei rubricapillus;
    • A. c. manipurensis = Manipur Tit – for Manipur, India, with Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Alan Hume in the ‘eastern hills’ of Manipur, description published in ‘The Birds of Manipur, Assam, Sylhet and Cachar’, Stray Feathers, 11/1–4 (1888), 254, as Ægithaliscus manipurensis;
    • A. c. talifuensis = Dali Tit – for Dali City (as Tali-fu), Yunnan, China, and Latin -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by G. Rippon at the 99th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 21 October 1903, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 14/100 (1903), 18 (indexed as ‘On a New Species of Tit from Western Yunan’), as Ægithaliscus talifuensis;
    • A. c. pulchellus = Beautiful Little Tit – from Latin pulcher = beautiful, pretty, and Latin -lus = diminutive adjectival suffix – collected by G. Rippon near Nanoi, around Loi Mai, Shan States (present-day Myanmar), in 1899, described at the 73rd Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 17 October 1900, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 11/74 (1900), 11 (indexed as ‘Ægithaliscus pulchellus, n. sp.’);
    • A. c. concinnus – the nominate form;
    • A. c. annamensis = Annam Tit – for Annam, and -ēnsis = geographical adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Herbert C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss on the Đà Lạt Plateau (as Langbian Peaks), Lâm Đồng Province, Vietnam (then Annam, French Indochina) in ‘On the Birds from South Annam and Cochin China, Part II: Pycnonotidæ–Dicæidæ’, Ibis, 11th ser., 1/4 (1919), 606–607, as Ægithaliscus annamensis – HBWAlive: Grey-crowned Tit Augithalos annamensis;
  • White-throated Bushtit (HBWAlive: White-throated Tit) – Aegithalos niveogularis = White-throated Tit – from Latin niveō = snowy, snow-white, and Latin gula = throat, and Latin -is = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected in ‘northern India’ (more specifically ‘northern Punjab’, according to Charles Vaurie in ‘Systematic Notes on Palaeartic Birds, No. 28: The Families of Remizidae and Aegithalidae’, American Museum Novitates, 1853 (1957), 20), in the collection of John Gould, description was read by Frederic Moore at the 27 June 1854 Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in ‘Descriptions of Three New Species of Titmice’, Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 22 (1855), 140, as Orites (?) niveogularis – Gould’s own description was published in his Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1855), pt 7, collated and republ. as Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1883), vol. 2, pl. 67 (text on opp. p.), as Acanthiparus glaucogularis White-throated Tit, where Acanthiparus = Thorny Tree Tit, Latinized from Greek ἄκανθος, ákanthos, from ἀκή, akḗ = thorn, and ἄνθος, ánthos = flower, and Latin parus = tit – both publications were issued in the same month, though Moore’s was dated 11 April and Gould’s no date in April, thus assigned 30th, therefore Moore takes priority;
  • White-throated Bushtit

    White-throated Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 67.
  • Rufous-fronted Bushtit (HBWAlive: Rufous-fronted Tit) – Aegithalos iouschistos = possibly Rusty Crowned Tit – perhaps Latinized construction of Greek ἰόεις, ióeis, from ῑ̓ός, īós = rust, and Greek σχῐστός, skhistós = cloven, split – type specimen collected by B.H. Hodgson in Nepal, listed by Hodgson in ‘Catalogue of Nipalese Birds, Collected between1824 and 1844’, in John Edward Gray (ed.), Zoological Miscellany (London: Treuttel, Wurtz, Sowerby, Wood, 1844), pt 4, 83, as Parus jouschistos, but a nomen nudum, subsequently described by E. Blyth in ‘‟On the Leiotrichane Birds of the Subhemalayas”, by B.H. Hodgson, Esq., with Some Additions and Annotations, a Synopsis of the Inidan Pari, and of the Indian Frigillidae’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (n.s., 72) (1845), 943, as Parus ioustichos;
  • Rufous-fronted Bushtit

    Rufous-fronted Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 68.
  • Black-browed Bushtit (HBWAlive: Black-browed Tit) – Aegithalos bonvaloti = Bonvalot’s Tit – for Gabriel Bonvalot – collected by ‘college students’ and Henri d’Orléans near Kangdin (as Tà-tsién-loû), Sichuan, China, 6 June 1890, during an expedition led by Bonvalot, described by É. Oustalet in Annales des sciences naturelles. Zoologie et paléontologie, 7th ser., 12/9 (1892), 284–286 (name on 286), as Acredula Bonvaloti;
    • A. b. bonvaloti = the nominate form;
    • A. b. obscuratus = Obscure Tit – from Latin obscūrātus = obscure, darkened – type specimen collected by Dean Sage Jr. and William G. Carter near ‘Cheng Gou Forks, west of Wenchwan’, (then?) Sichuan, China, 4 December 1934, mentioned by Hugh Birckhead in ‘The Birds of the Sage West China Expedition’, American Museum Novitates, 966 (1937), 13–14, assigned to Aegithaliscus bonvaloti bonvaloti, described by Ernst Mayer in J.K. Stanford, ‘The Vernay-Cutting Expedition to Northern Burma, with Notes on the Collection by Ernst Mayr’, Ibis, 82/4 (1940), 705, as Ægisthaliscus iouschistos obscuratus;
  • Burmese BushtitAegithalos sharpei = Sharpe’s Tit – for Richard Bowdler Sharpe – collected by G. Rippon from Nat Ma Taung (as Mt. Victoria), Myanmar, 25 March 1904, presented to the 106th Meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, London, 18 May 1904, description published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 14/107 (1904), 84 (indexed as ‘On New Species of Birds from the Southern Chin Hills’), as Ægithaliscus sharpei – lumped with Aegithaliscus bonvaloti by Stuart Baker in ‘Hand-list of the “Birds of India”‘ as part of ‘Birds of the Indian Empire’, Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, 27/2 (1920), 235, as Aegithalos bonvaloti sharpei – regarding the possible conspecificity of Aegithalos niveogularis, A. iouschistos, A. bonvaloti, A. sharpei, Charles Vaurie in ‘Systematic Notes on Paleartic Birds. No. 28 The Families Remizidae and Aegithalidae’, American Museum Novitates, 1853 (1957), 20, posed lumping them under Aegithalos iouschistos, as this is the oldest name, after which Aegithalos iouschistis sharpei became more widely used, e.g. in David W. Snow (who advised Vaurie), ‘Family Aegithalidae’ in Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. (ed.), Check-list of Birds of the World: A Continuation of the Work of James L. Peters (Cambridge, MA: Museum of Comparative Zoology, 1967), vol. 12, 58 – split from Aegisthalos bonvaloti, 2008 recommendation: Simon Harrap, ‘Family Aegithalidae (Long-tailed Tits)’, in Josep del Hoyo, Andrew Elliott, and David Christie eds., Handbook of the Birds of the World: Volume 13. Penduline-tits to Shrikes (Barcelona: Lynx Edicions, 2008) – HBWAlive: as Aegithalos bonvaloti sharpei;
  • Sooty Bushtit (HBWAlive: Sooty Tit) – Aegithalos fuliginosus = Sooty Tit – from Latin fūlīginōsus = sooty, from fūlīgo = soot, and -osus = full of – type specimen collected by Armand David in east Sichuan, described by J. Verreaux in ‘Oiseaux considéré comme nouveaux provenant du voyage de M. l’Abbé Armand David dans le Thibet oriental’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 5 (1869), 36, as Mecistura fuliginosa, a more extensive description appeared in ‘Descriptions des oiseaux nouveaux ou incomplètement connu collecté par M. l’Abbé Armand David pendant son voyage dans le Thibet oriental et la partie adjacente de la Chine’, Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 7 (1871), 57–58, the accompanying illustration by J. Huet appeared in Bulletin des Nouvelle archives du Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Paris, 8 (1878), pl. 5, fig. 4;
  • Pygmy Bushtit (HBWAlive: Pygmy Tit) – Aegithalos exilis = Small Tit – from Latin exīlis = small – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in Temminck and Guillaume Michel Jérôme Meiffren Laugier (as Le Baron Meiffren Laugier de Chartrouse), Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon (Paris: Levrault, 1836), livr. 101, pl. 600, the plate designed by French illustrator Jean-Gabriel Prêtre (as Prêtre) (collated and repr. as Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux, pour servir de suite et de complément aux planches enluminées de Buffon, édition in-folio et in-4⁰ de l’Imprimerie royale, 1770 (Paris: Levrault, 1838), vol. 3, pl. 600, text on subsequent pages), as Psaltrie mignonne (= Cute Harpist) Psaltria exilis – renamed and moved to Aegithalos, 2016 recommendation: Ulf S. Johansson, Per G.P. Ericson, Jon Fjeldså and Martin Irestedt, ‘The Phylogenetic Position of the World’s Smallest Passerine, the Pygmy Bushtit Psaltria exilis‘, Ibis, 158/3 (2016), 519, 525.
  • Pygmy Bushtit

    Pygmy Bushtits. Illustration: J. Gould & H.C. Richter, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 63.

Leptopoecile

Leptopoecile = Delicate Tit – from Greek λεπτός, leptós = thin, small, delicate, and genus epithet Poecile, which was coined by Jakob Kaup in Skizzirte Entwickelungs-Geschichte und natürliches System der europäischen Thierwelt : Erster Theil welcher die Vogelsäugethiere und Vögel nebst Andeutung der Entstehung der letzteren aus Amphibien enthält (Darmstadt and Leipzig: Leske, 1829), vol. 1, 114, as a genus name (de Dohlemeise) for Parus ater and Parus palustris, where Poecile is derived in a note from the Greek ποικῐ́λος, translated into German bunt, indeed Greek ποικῐ́λος, poikílos = pied, variegated, mentioned in reference to birds by Athenaeus in Δειπνοσοφισταί [Food Connoisseurs], 9.397c (trans. , Banquet des savans par Athénée (Paris: Lamy, 1789), vol. 3, 505–506) via D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson, A Glossary of Greek Birds (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1895), 148, thought to be Peacock.

  • White-browed Tit-warblerLeptopoecile sophiae = Sophia’s Tit – for Sofya Alexandrovna Severtzova née Poltoratskaya, wife of Nikolai Severtzov – described by Severtzov in ‘Вертикальное и горизонтальное распределение Туркестанских животных’ [Vertical and horizontal distribution of Turkestan fauna], Известия Императорском общества любителей естествознания, антропологии и этнографии [News of the Imperial Society of Devotees of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography], 8/2 (1873), 66 (table), 135 (text), pl. 8, fig. 8–9, as Leptopoecile Sophiae, republ. in English as H.E. Dresser, ‘Notes on Severtzoff’s “Fauna of Turkestan” (Turkestan jevotnie)’, Ibis (trans. H.E. Dresser), 3rd ser., 6/22 (1876), 171–172 – meanwhile, a description was published by Allan Hume in ‘Novelties?’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 513–516, first for a new genus Stoliczkana and also for its sole species Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ, both for Ferdinand Stoliczka – however, in a note in Stray Feathers, 3/4 (1875), 329 (indexed as ‘Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ, Hume, is Leptopœcile sophiæ, Severtsov’) Hume realizes Severtzov’s precedence, although rather petulantly:

    ‘Having at last obtained a copy of N. A. Severtsov’s Vertikalnœ i horizontalnœ raspredlenie Turkestanskikh jevotnikh, published in the Izviestia impera torskavo obstchestva lionvetelei, estestvoznania anthopologii i ethnographii, (vide Stray Feathers, Vol. II., 514). I regret to say that I am not much wiser than I was before. It is written entirely in Russian and printed in the Russian character, and though I have attacked the language, I have not yet made sufficient progress to understand two consecutive sentences. I have, however, discovered one important point from the plates to wit that my Stoliczkana stoliczkæ, has already been named by Severtsov, Leptopœcile sophiæ. I don’t think that publications in Russian should count!’

    White-browed Tit-warbler

    White-browed Tit-warblers. Illustration: J. Gould & W. Hart, in John Gould, The Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1873), vol. 2, pl. 62.
    • (HBWAlive: White-browed Tit-warbler) L. s. sophiae = the nominate form;
    • (HBWAlive: Stoliczka’s tit-warbler) L. s. stoliczkae = Stoliczka’s Tit – for Ferdinand Stoliczka – described by Allan Hume in ‘Novelties?’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 513–516, as Stoliczkana Stoliczkæ;
    • L. s. major = Greater Tit – from Latin maior = greater – possibly collected by Majev and Wilkins, in Uqturpan County (zh: Wushi County, referred to as Ush-turfan), Xinjiang, China, described by M. Menzbier in ‘On the Birds of the Upper Tarim, Kashgaria’, Ibis, 5th ser., 3/12 (1885), 353, as Leptopoecile sophiae major;
    • L. s. obscurus = Dusky Tit – from Latin obscūrus = dark, dusky – type specimen collected by Nikolay Przhevalsky in mountain forests along the Yangtze (then well-known as Blue River), Tibet, on 16 April 1880 (Julian calendar)/28 April 1880 (Gregorian calendar), description published in ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 80–83 (republ. N.M. Prjevalsky, ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., 5/20 (1887), 404–406, and Carl Detitius, ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887’ (trans. C. Detitius), Journal für Ornithologie, 35/179 (1887), 277, though publ. likely 1888), as Leptopoecile obscura;
  • Crested Tit-warblerLeptopoecile elegans = Elegant Tit – from Latin ēlegāns = fine, elegant, handsome – type specimen collected by Nikolay Przhevalsky along the Yellow River (as Huang-Ho), south of Qinghai Lake (as Koko-nor Lake), China, April 1880, description published in ‘Новые виды птиц Центральной Азии’ [New species of birds of central Asia], Zapiski Imperatorskoĭ akademīi nauk/Mémoires de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 55/1 (1887), 77–79 (republ. N.M. Prjevalsky, ‘On new species of central-Asian birds’ (trans. E. Delmar Morgan), Ibis, 5th ser., 5/20 (1887), 402–404, and Carl Detitius, ‘Przewalsky’s neue Vogelarten Centralasiens: Vortrag des Ehrenmitgliedes der Akademie N.M. Przewalsky in der Sitzung der Physikalisch-mathematischen Abtheilung in St. Peterburg vom 1.–13. Januar 1887’ (trans. C. Detitius), Journal für Ornithologie, 35/179 (1887), 275–276, though publ. likely 1888), as Leptopoecile elegans;

Psaltriparus

A combination of Psaltria and Parus epithets, first mentioned and described by Charles Bonaparte in ‘Sur deux espèccs nouvelles de Paridae’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 31/14 (1850), 478.

American BushtitPsaltriparus minimus = Least Tit – from Latin miminus = least, smallest – collected by John Kirk Townsend in the forests along the Columbia River, description presented in paper read by ‘Townsend’s friends’ in his absence to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 15 November 1836, published in ‘Description of Twelve New Species of Birds, Chiefly from the Vicinity of the Columbia River’, Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7/2 (1837), 190, as Parus minimus;

American Bushtit

American Bushtits. Illustration by J.J. Audubon, in John James Audubon, The Birds of North America, from Drawings Made in the United States and Their Territories (New York: Audubon, 1841), vol. 2, pl. 160.
  • P. m. saturatus = Saturated Tit – from Latin saturātus = sated – collected by C.P. Streator near Mount Vernon, WA, USA, 11 December 1895, described by Robert Ridgway in ‘Descriptions of New Genera Species and Subspecies of American Birds’ [sic], Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 16/28 (1903), 109, as Psaltriparus minimus saturatus;
  • (HBWAlive: Plain Bushtit) P. m. minimus = the nominate form;
  • P. m. melanurus = Black-tailed Bushtit – Latinized from Greek μελανουρος, melánouros = black-tailed, from μέλας, mélas = black, and οὐρά, ourá = tail – collected by Joseph Grinnell near San José del Cabo (as San Jose), Baja California Sur (as Lower California), Mexico, 21 October 1925, described by Grinnell and Harry S. Swarth in ‘New Subspecies of Birds (Fenthestes, Baeolophus, Psaltriparus, Chamaea) from the Pacific Coast of North America’, University of California Publications in Zoology, 30/5 (1926), 169, as Psaltriparus minimus melanurus Black-tailed Bush-tit;
  • P. m. grindae = Grinda’s Bushtit – for Don Francisco G. Grinda – collected by L. Belding in Sierra de la Laguna (as Laguna), Baja California Sur (as Lower California), Mexico, 2 February 1883, described by Robert Ridgway in ‘Descriptions of Some New Birds from lower California, Collected by Mr. L. Belding’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 6/10 (1883), 155, as Psaltriparus grindæ Grinda’s Titmouse;
  • P. m. californicus = California Bushtit – for California, USA – collected by Charles W. Townsend near Baird, Shasta County, CA, USA, 27 May 1883, described in a paper by Robert Ridgway read at the 58th Meeting of the Biological Society of Washington, 23 February 1884, published as ‘Descriptions of Some New North American Birds’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 2 (1884), 89–90, as Psaltriprarus minimus californicus;
  • (HBWAlive: Plumbeous Bushtit) P. m. plumbeus = Lead-coloured Bushtit – from Latin plumbum = lead, and Latin‎ -eus = adjectical suffix – collected by C.B.R. Kennerly and H.B. Müllhausen along the Little Colorado River, NM, USA, 1 February 1854, description read by S.F. Baird to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 20 June 1854, published as ‘Descriptions of New Birds Collected between Albuquerque, N.M., and San Francisco, California, during the Winter of 1853–1854, by Dr. C.B.R. Kennerly and H.B. Müllhausen, Naturalists Attached to the Survey of the Pacific R.R. Route, under Lt. A.W. Whipple’, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 7/3 (1854), 118, as Psaltria plumbea;
  • P. m. dimorphicus = Dimorphic Bushtit – Latinized from Greek διμορφος, dimorphos = dimorphic, from δι- di- = two, and μορφή, morphḗ = shape, form – collected by A.J. van Rossem and Robert Hannum near Racho Santa Barbara, Guirocoba, Sonora, Mexico, 8 June 1937, described by van Rossem and Masauji Hachisuka in ‘A Dimorphic Subspecies of the Bish-tit from Northwestern Mexico’, Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History, 9/3 (1938), 8, as Psaltriparus minimus diomorphicus;
  • P. m. iulus = Catkin Bushtit – from Latin iūlus = catkin – type specimen collected by P.L. Jouy near Hacienda El Molino, Jalisco, Mexico, described by Jouy in ‘Notes on Birds of Central Mexico, with Descriptions of Forms Believed to Be New’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 16/975 (1874), 776, as Psaltriparus melanotis iulus;
  • P. m. personatus = Masked Bushtit – from Latin persōnātus = masked, from persōna = mask, and -ātus = qualifying adjectival suffix – described by Charles Bonaparte in ‘Sur deux espèccs nouvelles de Paridae’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 31/14 (1850), 478, as Psaltriparus personatus;
  • (HBWAlive: Black-eared Bushtit) P. m. melanotis = Black-eared Bushtit – from Latin melanōtis = black-eared, from Greek Greek μέλᾱς, mélās = black, and οὖς, oûs = ear, and Latin -is = compositional adjectival suffix – described by Gustav Hartlaub in ‘Description de sept oiseaux nouveaux de Guatemala’, Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne, 7 (1844), 216, as Parus melanotis.

Lanius Shrikes

Great Grey Shrikes

The genus name Lanius found its description in Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi), Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (10th edn., Holmiæ [Stockholm]: Salvii, 1758), i. 93, with synonym references of the type species (Lanius Excubitor, 94) to Ulisse Aldrovandi (as Ulyssis Aldrovandi), Ornithologiae, hoc est de avibus historiae, libri XII, ad Clementem VII, cum indice septendecim linguarum copiosissimo (Bononiae [Bologna]: Franciscum de Franciscis Senensem, 1599), v. 386 (Lanius cinereum fæmina) and Francis Willoughby (as Francisci Willughbeii), Ornithologiæ libri tres: in quibus Aves omnes hactenus cognitæ in methodum naturis suis convenientem redactæ accuratè describuntur, descriptiones iconibus elegantissimis & vivarum avium simillimisæri incisis illustratur (Londini [London]: Martyn, 1676), ii. 53 (Lanius cinereus major Great Butcher-bird, Mattagess). Both these works take Lanius from Conrad Gessner (as Conradi Gesneri), Historiæ animalium, Liber III qui est de avium natura (Tiguri [Zürich]: Froschoverum, 1555), 777, who invented the epithet of Lanios/Lanius (from Latin lanius = butcher) as according to him the genus deserved a new name.

An imaginative genus with many synonyms – the Richmond card index has 679 entries (including duplicates the list is still voluminous) – many species taxonomically in flux, the IOC recognizes 28 species, 70 subspecies, though some subspecies may well be split to species level, and some may be lumped.

Falco falcons

Eurasian Kestrel Falco tinnunculusMalagasay Kestrel Falco newtoni

In the English language a distinction is made within the Falco genus between kestrels, hobbies, merlins and falcons.

Etymologically, falcon is of unknown origin, probably from Old High German falco, from Proto-Germanic falkô (reconstructed); hobby stems from Middle English hobi or hoby, which itself stems from Old French hobet, from Latin hopētus, diminutive of harpe ≈ perhaps Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus or Black Kite Milvus migrans. Kestrel – from kesrel (the ‘t’ is excrescent), from Middle French quercerelle (onomatopoeic), which itself stems from Old French cercelle or crecele, and which evolved into present-day French crécerelle. Merlin – from Old English merlone, Old Frankish smiril = falcon. Ancient texts use various names for falcons s.l., generally for raptors in general or with no allusion to species, hence pinning a name down to one species, or even a clade is difficult.

As of version 9.1 of the IOC World Bird List the Falco genus comprises 38 extant species:

Old World Sparrows (2: Synonymity)

J. Denis Summers-Smith in The Sparrows: A Study of the Genus Passer (Calton: Poyser, 1988), 307–313 provides a list of synonyms of genera, species and subspecies that have been used to describe various forms of Old World Passer sparrows. What follows is an elaborated version of this list, with attention to names and bibliography.

    Passer ahasver
  • abyssinicus = Abyssinian Sparrow – for Abyssinia, in reference to the Ethiopian Empire, corresponding to present-day Ethiopia and Erithrea – used by German ornithologist Oscar Neumann for Passer griseus abyssinicus in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 21/141 (1908), 70–71 – synonym of Passer swainsonii;
  • aegyptiaca/aegyptiacus = Egyptian Sparrow – for Egypt – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita aegyptiaca in Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands (Ilmenau: Voigt, 1831), 266 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • ahasver (Summers-Smith lists ahasvar erroneously) = Wandering Sparrow – for the mythical Wandering Jew character (Ahasver, from Ahasuerus) – used by German ornithologist Otto Kleinschmidt for Passer ahasver in ‘Einiges über Spatzen’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 12/1 (1904), 7 – synonym of Passer domesticus tingitanus;
  • albiventris = White-bellied Sparrow – from Latin albus = white, and Latin venter = belly – used by Hungarian ornithologist Gyula Madarász for Passer albiventris in Annales Musei historico-naturalis hungarici, 9 (1911), 342 – synonym of Passer griseus ugandae;
  • alexandrinus = Alexandrian Sparrow – Alexandria, Egypt – used by Hungarian ornithologist Gyula Madarász for Passer alexandrinus in Annales Musei historico-naturalis hungarici, 9 (1911), 340–341 – synonym of Passer domesticus niloticus;
  • ammodendri = Saxaul Sparrow – most likely for Haloxylan ammodendron Black Saxaul and not for the genus Ammodendron Sand Acacia, still from Greek άμμος, ammos = sand, and Greek δένδρον, dendron = tree – used by English ornithologist John Gould for Passer ammodendri in Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1872), v. pl. 15, pt 24, as Turkestan Sparrow – species and nominate subspecies: Passer ammodendri ammodendri;
  • annectans = Connecting Sparrow – from Latin annectere = to connect – used by American zoologist Walter Koelz for Passer rutilans annectans in ‘New races of Assam birds’, Journal of the Zoological Siciety of India, 4(2) (1953), 153–155 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus intensior;
  • arboreus = Tree Sparrow – here Summers-Smith makes a distinction for Passer arboreus:
  • arcuata/arcuatus = Crescent Sparrow – from Latin arcus = bow – used by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin for Fringilla arcuata in Caroli a Linné, Systema Naturae, ed. J.F. Gmelin (13th edn., Leipzig: Been, 1789), i. pt 2, 912 – synonym for Passer melanurus melanurus;
  • arrigonii (Summers-Smith lists arrigoni erroneously) = Arrigoni’s Sparrow – for Italian ornithologist Ettore Arrigoni degli Oddi – used by Austrian ornithologist Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen for Passer hispaniolensis arrigonii in ‘Über palearktische Formen, III: Der Weidensperling (Passer hispaniolensis Temm.) und seine Formen’, Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, 14/1,2 (1903), 8–9 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • assimilis = Similar Sparrow – from Latin assimilis = similar, like – used by Scottish ornithologist Arthur Hay (as Arthur, Viscount Walden, as he was known as Viscount Walden, and authored as Walden) for Passer assimilis in ‘Descriptions of some new species of birds from Southern Asia’, Annals and Magazine of Natural History, 4th ser., 5/27 (1870), 218 – synonym of Passer flaveolus;
  • Auripasser = Golden Sparrow – from Latin aurum = gold, and Latin passer = sparrow – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte and German ornithologist Hermann Schlegel as an intermediate group between Serinus and Passer (i.c. Fringilla) in Monographie des loxiens (Leiden: Arnz, 1850), xi – synonym for Passer;
  • bactrianus = Bactrian Sparrow – for Bactria, from Latin Bactria (or Bactriana) – used by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev for Passer domesticus bactrianus in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 37 – subspecies: Passer domesticus bactrianus;
  • baicalicus = Baikal Sparrow – for Lake Baikal – used by Andras Keve for Passer domesticus baicalicus in 1943 (perhaps in Anzeiger der Akademie der Wissenshaften in Wien, 80 (1943)?) – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • balearoibericus = Hispanic Sparrow – for Balearic Islands, from Latin Baleares = Balearic Islands, and for Iberian Peninsula, from Latin Hiberia = Iberia – used by German ornithologist Adolf von Jordans for Passer domesticus balearoibericus in ‘Neue Vogelrassen von den Balearen’, Falco, 19/Sonderheft (1923), 4 – subspecies: Passer domesticus balearoibericus;
  • batangensis (Summers-Smith lists batanguensis erroneously, and without reference, only type locale) = Batang Sparrow – for Batang County, Sichuan Province, China – used by Tso-hsin Cheng and Guowei Tan for Passer rutilans batangensis in Cheng, Tan, Zhilan and Zhu, ‘四川西南 與雲南西北地區鳥類的分類研究 III. 雀形目’ [Classification of birds in southwest Sichuan and northwest Yunnan, III: Passerines], Acta zoologica sinica, 15/2 (1963), 307 (paper in Chinese) – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus intensior;
  • benguellensis = Benguele Sparrow – for Benguela, Angola – used by British ornithologist Hubert Lynes for Passer motitensis benguellensis in ‘On the birds of North and Central Darfur: taxo‐nomic appendix – Part III–X’, Ibis, 68/2 (1926), 380 – subspecies (Summers-Smith states erroneously synonym of Passer iagoensis benguellensis);
  • bergeri = Berger’s Sparrow – for German hunter and collector Arthur Berger – used by Otto Eduard Graf von Zedlitz und Trützschler for Passer italiae bergeri in ‘Ein neuer Sperling aus Süd-Tunesien’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 16/3 (1908), 42–44 – hybrid between Passer domesticus and Passer hispaniolensis;
  • biblicus = Biblical Sparrow – from Latin biblia = Bible – used by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert for Passer domesticus biblicus (as Passer domestica biblicus) in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1910), i. Heft 2, 149 (first publ. 1904) – subspecies: Passer domesticus biblicus;
  • boetticheri = Boetticher’s Sparrow – for German zoologist Hans von Boetticher – used by W.S. Stachanow for Passer montanus boetticheri in ‘Nouvelles races geographiques de Friquets (Passer montanus) de l’Asie Centrale’, L’Oiseau et Revue francaise d’Ornithologie, 3/4 (1933), 789–792 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • bokotoensis = Bokoto Sparrow – for Bokoto Island, Penghu Islands, Taiwan – used by Japanese ornithologist Yoshimaro Yamashina for Passer montanus bokoensis in ‘On a new form of Tree-sparrow from the Pescadores Islands’, Tori, 8/36 (1933), 1 – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • brachyrhynchos (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Short-billed Sparrow – from Greek βραχυς, brakhus = short, and Greek ῥυγχος, rhunkhos = bill – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita brachyrhynchos in ‘Einige Bemerkungen über Sperlinge und über die Zeichnung verwandter Vogelarten’, Isis von Oken, 1842/12 (1842), 890 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • brancoensis = Branco Sparrow – for Ilhéu Branco, Cape Verde – used by French zoologist Émile Oustalet for Passer brancoensis in ‘Description d’espèces nouvelles d’oiseaux provenant des iles du Cap-Vert’, Annales des sciences naturelles, 6th ser., 16 (1883), art. 5, 1 – synonym of Passer iagoensis iagoensis;
  • brutius = Bruttii’s Sparrow – for the Bruttians, an ancient Italian people – used by Carlo de Fiore for Passer hispaniolensis brutius (Summers-Smith lists Passer italiae var. brutius) in Materiali per una Avifauna Calabra (Rome, 1890), 28 – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • buryi = Bury’s Sparrow – for George Wyman Bury – used by Austrian zoologists Ludwig Lorenz von Liburnau and Carl Eduard Hellmayr for Passer domesticus buryi in ‘Ein Beitrag zur Ornis Süd-Arabiens’, Journal für Ornithologie, 49/2 (1901), 233–234 – synonym of Passer domesticus indicus;
  • cahirina (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Cairo Sparrow – for Cairo, Egypt, from Arabic القاهرة‎, al-Qāhirah – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Pyrgita cahirina in ‘Ueber die ornithologischen Arbeiten des Herzogs Paul Wilhelm von Würtemberg während seiner Reise in die oberen Nil-Länder’, Journal für Ornithologie, 15/89 (1867), 299 – synonym of Passer domesticus niloticus or Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • campestris (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Field Sparrow – from Latin campus = field – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita campestris in Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands (Ilmenau: Voigt, 1831), 267 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • canariensis = Gran Canaria Sparrow – for Gran Canaria, Canary Islands – used by Austrian ornithologist Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen for Passer hispaniolensis canariensis in ‘Über palearktische Formen, XVII: Passer hispaniolensis canariensis subsp. nov.’, Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, 25/1–2 (1915), 54 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • carnicus = Carnic Sparrow – for the Carnic Alps, Italy – used by Graziano Vallon for Passer domesticus canicus in ‘Escursioni ornitologiche nel Fruili, X serie 1913’, Rivista italiana di ornitologia, 3/1-2 (1914), 9–10 (Summers-Smith lists 1912) – carnicus seems to point to a hybrid of Passer domesticus and Passer italiae, synonym of Passer italiae;
  • castaneus (not listed by Summers-Smith) – Chestnut-coloured Sparrow – from Latin castanea = chestnut – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Pyrgita castaneus in Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s (Cassel: Fischer, 1871), i. 628 – undescribed synonym of either Passer domesticus niloticus or Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • castanopterus = Chestnut-winged Sparrow – from Greek καστανον, kastanon = chestnut, and Greek -πτερος, -pteros = -winged – used by English zoologist Edward Blyth for Passer castanopterus in ‘Report of a zoological collection from the Somali country’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 24/4 (1855), 302 – species and nominate subspecies: Passer castanopterus castanopterus;
  • castanotus (not listed by Summers-Smith) – Chestnut-backed Sparrow – from Greek καστανον, kastanon = chestnut, and Greek νωτον, nōton = back – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Pyrgita castanotus in Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s (Cassel: Fischer, 1871), i. 628 – undescribed synonym of either Passer domesticus niloticus or Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • catellatus = Catellus’s Sparrow – for Catellus, King of Brittons, this makes more sense than the Latin catellus = little chain – used by German ornithologist Otto Kleinschmidt for Passer catellatus in ‘Fringilla campestris (Kl)’, Falco Skizzen, 2 (1935), 1–2 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • caucasicus = Caucasus Sparrow – for the Caucasus – used by Modeste N. Bogdanov for Passer domesticus caucasicus (as Passer domesticus var. caucasicus) in ‘Птицы Кавказа’ [Birds of the Caucasus], Труды общества естествоиспытателей при Императорском Казанском ун-те [Proceedings of the Society of Naturalists at the Imperial Kazan University], 8/4 (1879), 60, though description insufficient according to German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1910), i. 148 (first publ. 1904) – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • chephreni (Summers-Smith lists cheprini erroneously) = Khafre Sparrow – for Pyramid of Khafre, from Greek Χεφρήν = Chephren – used by American ornithologist John Charles Phillips for Passer domesticus chephreni in ‘Two new African birds’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 26/43 (1913), 167–168 – synonym of Passer domesticus niloticus;
  • cinnamomea/cinnamomeus = Cinnamon-coloured Sparrow – from Latin cinnamomum = cinnamon – used by English ornithologist John Gould for Pyrgita cinnamomea in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 3 1835/36 (1836), 184 – species and nominate subspecies: Passer cinnamomeus cinnamomeus;
  • cisalpina/cisalpinus = Cisalpine Sparrow – from Latin cisalpinus = this side of the Alps – used by Dutch ornithologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck for Fringilla cisalpina in Manuel d’ornithologie, (2nd edn, Paris: Cousin, 1820), 351 – synonym for Passer italiae;
  • ciscaucasicus = North Caucasus Sparrow – from Latin ciscaucasicus = this side of the Caucasus – used by Russian ornithologist Sergei Buturlin for Parus montanus ciscaucasicus in Систематические заметки о птицах Северного Кавказа [Systematic Notes on the Birds of the North Caucasus] (Makhachkala: Association of North Caucasus Ethnographic Societies, 1929), 40 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • colchicus = Colchian Sparrow – for Colchis, exonym for Egrisi, present-day western Georgia – used by Ukranian-Soviet ornithologist Leonid Portenko for Passer domesticus colchicus in Птицы СССР [Birds of the USSR] (Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1960), iv. 244 – synonym of Passer domesticus biblicus;
  • confusius = Ambivalent Sparrow – from Latin confusior = more mixed or confused – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Passer confusius in ‘Notes sur les collections rapportées en 1853, par M. A. Delattre, de son voyage en Californie et dans le Nicaragua’, Comptes rendus des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 37/25 (1853), 914 – synonym of Passer domesticus indicus;
  • cordofanicus/kordofanicus = Kordofan Sparrow – for Kordofan, Sudan – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Passer cordofanicus in Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s, appendix to Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s (Cassel: Fischer, 1871), ii. app. 141 – species: Passer cordofanicus;
  • Corospiza = True Finch – from Greek κορος, koros = pure, and Greek σπιζα, spiza = finch – used by French ornithology Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Passer simplex (as Fringilla simplex) in Conspectus generum avium (Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1850), 511 – synonym of Passer;
  • crassirostris (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Thick-billed Sparrow – from Latin crassus = thick, heavy and Latin rostrum = beak – the epithet is used in two different contexts:
    • used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer domesticus crassirostris in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
    • used by English ornithologist George Ernest Shelley for Passer crassirostris in The Birds of Africa (London: Porter, 1902), iii. 255–256 – synonym of Passer gongonensis;
  • damarensis = Damara Sparrow – for Damaraland – used by Anton Reichenow for Passer arcuatus damarensis in ‘Neue Vogelarten aus Damaraland’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 10/5 (1902), 77 – subspecies: Passer melanurus damarensis;
  • debilis = Frail Sparrow – from Latin debilis = weak, frail – used by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert for Passer rutilans debilis in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1904), i. 162 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus cinnamomeus;
  • diffusa/diffusus = Widespread Sparrow – from Latin diffundere = to spread – used by by Scottish zoologist Andrew Smith for Pyrgita diffusa in Report of the Expedition for Exploring Central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town: Government Gazette Office, 1836), 50 (app. 1) – species and subspecies: Passer diffusus diffusus;
  • diniz = Denis’s Sparrow – for Denis of Portugal, from Portuguese Dinis or Diniz – used by German naturalist Kurt Floericke for Passer domesticus diniz in ‘Bemerkungen über portugiesische Vögel’, Mitteilungen über die Vogelwelt, 25 (1926), 16 – synonym for Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • domestica/domesticus = House Sparrow – from Latin domus = house – used by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) for Fringilla domestica in Systema naturæ (10th edn., Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), i. 183 – species and subspecies: Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • dybowskii – Dybowski’s Sparrow – for Polish naturalist Benedykt Dybowski – used by Polish ornithologist Janusz Domaniewski for Passer montanus dybowskii in Comptes rendus des séances de al Société des sciences de Varsovie, 8/7 (1915), 562, 566 – subspecies: Passer montanus dybowskii;
  • Passer montanus dybowskii
  • emini/eminibey – Emin Bey’s Sparrow – for German-Ottoman naturalist Emin Pasha (born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, Bey is a Turkish title) – used by German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub for Sorella Emini Bey in ‘Ueber einige neue von Dr. Emin Bey, Gouverneur Aequatorialprovinzen Aegyptens, um Lado, Central-Afrika entdeckte Vögel’, Journal für Ornithologie, 28/150 (1880), 211 (erratum 325) – synonym of/species: Passer eminibey;
  • enigmaticus = Enigmatic Sparrow – from Greek αινιγματικος, ainigmatikos = enigmatic, mysterious – used by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny for Passer enigmaticus in German ornithologist Anton Reichenow‘s ‘Einige neue Spezies und Subspezies paläarktische Vogelarten’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 11/9 (1903), 130–131 – synonym of Passer domesticus indicus;
  • eritreae (Summers-Smith lists eritrea erroneously) = Eritrea Sparrow – for Eritrea, from Greek Ερυθρη θαλασσα, Eruthrē thalassa = Red Sea – used by Otto Eduard Graf von Zedlitz und Trützschler for Passer griseus eritreae in ‘Meine ornithologische Ausbeute in Nordost-Afrika’, Journal für Ornithologie, 59/1 (1911), 33–34 – synonym of Passer swainsonii;
  • erythrophrys = Red-eyebrow Sparrow – from Greek ερυθρος, eruthros = red, and Greek οφρυς, ophrus = eyebrow – used by French ornithology Charles Lucien Bonaparte (Summers-Smith lists Temminck erroneously) for Passer erythrophrys in Conspectus generum avium (Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1850), 510 – synonym of Passer iagoensis;
  • espaniolensis (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Spanish Sparrow – for Spain, from Spanish Español – used by Johann Carl Werner for Fringilla espaniolensis in Atlas des oiseaux d’Europe, pour servir de complément au Manuel d’ornithologie de M. Temminck (Paris: Belin, 1827), pl. 41 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • euchlora/euchlorus = Light-green Sparrow – from Greek ευ, eu = fine, and Greek χλωρος, khlōros = light green – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Auripasser euchlora in Conspectus generum avium (Luduni Batavorum, Brill, 1850), i. 519 – species: Passer eucholrus;
  • familiaris (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Friendly Sparrow – from Latin familiaris = familiar, friendly, from familia = family – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer domesticus familiaris in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • flaveolus = Yellowish Sparrow – from Latin flaveolus = yellowish – used by English zoologist Edward Blyth for Passer flaveolus in ‘Synopsis of Indian Fringillidæ’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (1845), 946–947 – species: Passer flaveolus;
  • flückigeri = Flükiger’s Sparrow – for Swiss naturalist Ernst Flükiger – used by German ornithologist Otto Kleinschmidt for Passer flückigeri in ‘Einiges über Spatzen’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 12/1 (1904), 7 – hybrid between Passer domesticus and Passer hispaniolensis;
  • Fringilla (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Finch – from Latin fringilla = finch – used by Carl Linnaeus for Fringilla in Systema naturæ (10th edn., Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), i. 179 – synonym of Passer;
  • fulgens = Shiny Sparrow – from Latin fulgere = to shine – used by American ornithologist Herbert Friedmann for Passer castanopterus fulgens in ‘The geographic forms of the Somali Sparrow, Passer castanopterus Blyth’, Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History, 5 (1931), 428 – subspecies: Passer castanopterus fulgens;
  • galliae = French Sparrow – for Gaul, approx. present-day France, from Latin Gallia – used by Austrian ornithologist Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen for Passer italiae galliae in ‘Über palearktische Formen, III: Der Weidensperling (Passer hispaniolensis Temm.) und seine Formen’, Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, 14/1,2 (1903), 19 – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • georgicus = Rural Sparrow – from Latin georgicus = agricultural, after Greek γεωργικος, geōrgikos = farmer – used by German ornithologist Anton Reichenow for Passer griseus georgicus in Die Vögel Afrikas (Neudamm: Neumann, 1904), iii. 231 – synonym of Passer diffusus diffusus;
  • gobiensis = Gobi Sparrow – for the Gobi Desert – used by W.S. Stachanow for Passer montanus gobiensis in ‘Nouvelles races geographiques de Friquets (Passer montanus) de l’Asie Centrale’, L’Oiseau et Revue francaise d’Ornithologie, 3/4 (1933), 790 – synonym for Passer montanus dilutus;
  • gongonensis = Gongoni Sparrow – for Gongoni, Kenya – used by French zoologist Émile Oustalet for Passer gononensis in ‘Description de deux nouvelle espèces d’oiseaux de l’Afrique orientale’, Le naturaliste, 2nd ser., 4/90 (1890), 274 – species: Passer gongonensis;
  • grisea/griseus = Grey Sparrow – from Latin griseus = grey – used by French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot for Fringilla grisea in Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle (new edn., Paris: Deterville, 1817), xii. 198 – species and subspecies: Passer griseus griseus;
  • griseigularis/griseogularis = Grey-throated Sparrow – from Latin griseum = grey, and Latin gula = throat – used by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe in Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum (London: Taylor & Francis, 1888), xii. 313 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • guasso = Ewaso Sparrow – for the Ewaso Ng’iro river, Kenya, Guasso Njiro is an old writing form of Ewaso Ng’iro – used by Australian-Kenyan zoologist Victor Van Someren for Sorella emini guasso in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 43/272 (1922), 38–39 (indexed as V.G.L. Someren, ‘Description of a new subspecies of sparrow (Sorella emini guasso) from North Guasso Nyiro’) – synonym of Passer eminibey;
  • gularis = White-throated Sparrow – from Latin gula = throat – used by French ornithologist René Lesson for Pyrgita gularis in ‘Oiseaux inédits’, Revue Zoologique par la Société Cuvierienne, 2/2 (1839), 45 – synonym of Passer griseus griseus;
  • halfae = Wadi Halfa Sparrow – for Wadi Halfa, Sudan – used by Richard Meinertzhagen for Passer domesticus halfae in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/256 (1921), 67 (indexed as ‘Exhibition and description of a new form of the House Sparrow (Passer domesticus halfæ) from the Sudan’) – synonym of Passer domesticus niloticus;
  • hamburgia/hamburgensis = Hamburg Sparrow – for Hamburg – used by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin for Loxia hamburgia in the 1789 edition of Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae of which Gmelin was the editor: Caroli a Linné, Systema Naturae, ed. J.F. Gmelin (13th edn., Leipzig: Been, 1789), i. pt 2, 854 – synonym for Passer montanus montanus;
  • hansmanni = Hansmann’s Sparrow – for – used by German naturalist Carl Bolle for Passer hansmanni in ‘Die Vogelwelt auf den Inslen des grünen Vorgebirges’, Journal für Ornithologie, 4/19 (1856), 22–23 – synonym for Passer iagoensis;
  • hemileucus = White-bellied Sparrow – from Greek ἡμι-, hēmi- = half, and Greek λευκος, leukos = white – used by Scottish ornithologists William Robert Ogilvie-Grant and Henry Ogg Forbes for Passer hemileucus in ‘The expedition to Sokotra: I. Descriptions of the new species of birds’, Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums, 2/1 (1899), 3 – species: Passer hemileucus;
  • hepaticus = Liver-coloured Sparrow – from Latin hepar, hepatis = liver – used by Sidney Dillon Ripley for Passer montanus hepaticus in ‘New birds from the Mishmi Hills’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 61 (1948), 106–107 – synonym of Passer montanus malaccensis;
  • hispaniae/hispanicus/hispaniensis/hispaniolensis (see note) = Hispanic Sparrow – for Spain, from Latin Hispania – Summers-Smith distingishes between two (sub)species:
    • hispaniae – used by German ornithologist Adolf von Jordans for Passer montanus italae in ‘Über einige Vogelrassen der Nord-Pyrinäen und Nordost-Spanien’, Anzeiger der Ornithologische Gesellschaft in Bayern, 2 (1933), 253 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
    • hispaniolensis – used by Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck for Fringilla hispaniolensis in Manuel d’ornithologie (2nd edn., Paris: Cousin, 1820), i. 353–354 – species and subspecies: Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • hortorum (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Garden Sparrow – from Latin hortus = garden – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer montanus hortorum in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • hostilis = Hostile Sparrow – from Latin hostis = enemy – used by Otto Kleinschmidt for Passer hostilis in Falco, 11 (1915), 19–20 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • hufufae = Hofuf Sparrow – for Al-Hofuf (or Hufuf) – used by English ornithologists Claude B. Tivehurst and Robert Ernest Cheesman for Passer domesticus hufufæ in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 45/290 (1924), 19–20 – subspecies: Passer domesticus hufufae;
  • hyrcanus – Hyrcanian Sparrow – for Hyrcania – used by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev for Passer domesticus hyrcanus in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 38 – subspecies: Passer domesticus hyrcanus;
  • iagoensis/jagoensis = Santiago Sparrow – for Santiago, Cape Verde – used by English ornithologist John Gould for Pyrgita iagoensis in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 5 1837/55 (1838), 77–78 (indexed as ‘Exhibition of Mr. Darwin’s birds, and description of a new species of wagtail (Motacilla leucopsis) from India’) – species: Passer iagoensis;
  • ignoratus = Overlooked Sparrow – from Latin ignorare = to be ignorant of – used by American ornithologist Herbert Girton Deignan for Passer rutilans ignoratus in ‘A miscellany of new birds from Eastern Asia’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 61/2 (1948), 16 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus rutilans;
  • indicus = Indian Sparrow – for India – used by Scottish naturalist William Jardine and English ornithologist Prideaux John Selby for Passer indicus in Illustrations of Ornithology (Edinburgh: Lizars, 1831), iii. pl. 118, p. 29 – subspecies: Passer domesticus indicus;
  • insularis = Island Sparrow – from Latin insula = island – used by English zoologist Philip Sclater and German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub for Passer insularis in ‘On the birds collected in Socotra by Prof. I.B. Balfour’, Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1881/11, 169–170 – species: Passer insularis;
  • intensior = More-intense Sparrow – from Latin intensior, comparative of intensus – used by Lionel Walter Rothchild for Passer rutilans intensior in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 43/271 (1922), 11–12 (indexed as ‘Description of new species and subspecies of Yunnan birds’) – subspecies: Passer cinnamomeus intensior;
  • intercedens (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Intermediate Sparrow – from Latin intercedere = to come between – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita intercedens in ‘Einige Bemerkungen über Sperlinge und über die Zeichnung verwandter Vogelarten’, Isis von Oken, 1842/12, 891 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • italiae = Italian Sparrow – for Italy – described by French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot for Fringilla italiæ in Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle (new edn., Paris: Deterville, 1817), xii. 199–200 – species: Passer italiae;
  • iubilaeus/jubilaeus (Summers-Smith lists iubalaeus and jubalaeus erroneously) = Jubilant Sparrow – from Latin iubilaeus = jubilant – used by in German biologist Oskar Heinroth‘s ‘Bericht über die Märzsitzung 1907 der Deutsche Ornithologische Gesellschaft’, Journal für Ornithologie, 55/3 (1907), 470 (indexed as ‘Passer montanus iubilaeus n. sp.’) – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • jubaensis = Jubba Sparrow – for the Jubba River, from Italian Giuba – used by Constantine Walter Benson for Passer griseus jubaensis in ‘A new species and ten new races from Southern Abyssinia’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 63/444 (1942), 18 – synonym of Passer gongonensis;
  • jugiferus (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Collared Sparrow – from Latin iugum = yoke, collar – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Passer jugiferus in Conspectus generum avium (Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1850), 508 – synonym for Passer flaveolus;
  • kaibatoi = Moneron Sparrow – for Moneron Island, Sakhalin, Russia – used by Ludvig Munsterhjelm for Passer montanus kaibatoi in ‘Über Anthus spinoletta reuteri n. subsp. and Passer montanus kaibatoi n. subsp. aus Sachalin’, Nyt magazin for naturvidenskaberne, 54 (1916), 171–175 – synonym of Passer montanus saturatus;
  • kansuensis – Gansu Sparrow – for Gansu Province, China – used by Erwin Stresemann for Passer montanus kansuensis in ‘Neue Formen aus Nord-Kansu VIII’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 40/2 (1932), 55 – subspecies: Passer montanus kansuensis;
  • kikuchii (Summers-Smith lists kikuchi erroneously) = Kikuchi’s Sparrow – for Japanese zoologist Yonetaro Kikuchi – used by Nagamichi Kuroda for Passer rutilans kikuchii in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 45/290 (1924), 16 (indexed as ‘Description of three new races from the Kurile Islands, Hokkaido, and Formosa’) – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus rutilans;
  • kleinschmidti = Kleinschmidt’s Sparrow – for Otto Kleinschmidt – used by Hermann Grote for Passer griseus kleinschmidti in ‘Bemerkungen über einige neue afrikanische Formen. II’, Journal für Ornithologie, 70/4 (1922), 483 – synonym of Passer griseus griseus;
  • korejewi = Korejev’s Sparrow – for B.P. Korejew – used by Ukranian-Russian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and M. Härms in ‘Neue Vogelarten’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 10/4 (1902), 53 – synonym of Passer ammodendri ammodendri;
  • laeneni = Laenen’s Sparrow – for Belgian ornithologist Julien René Laenen – used by Günther Niethammer for Passer griseus laeneni in ‘Zur Vogelwelt des Ennedi-Gebirges (Französisch Äquatorial-Afrika)’, Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 6/1–2 (1955), 75–76 – subspecies: Passer griseus laeneni;
  • lichtensteinii (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Lichtenstein’s Sparrow – for German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Passer lichtensteinii in ‘Synopsis der Vögel Nord-Ost Afrikas, des Nilquellengebietes und der Küstenländer des Rothen Meeres’, Journal für Ornithologie, 16/92 (1868), 88 – synonym of Passer simplex simplex;
  • lisarum = Lisa’s Sparrow – for three Lisas: Anneliese Heinrich née Machatchek (wife of Heinrich), Liselotte Machatchek (mistress/partner of Heinrich), Marlis Heinrich (niece of Heinrich) – used by German ornithologists Erwin Stresemann and Gerd Heinrich for Passer rutilans lisarum in ‘Die Vögel des Mount Victoria. Ein Beitrag zur Ornithologie von Burma’, Mitteilungen aus dem Zoologischen Museum in Berlin, 24/2 (1940), 172 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus intensior;
  • loangwae/luangwae = Luangwa Sparrow – for the Luangwa Valley, Zambia – used by English ornithologist Constantine Walter Benson for Passer diffusus luangwae in ‘The relationship between Passer griseus (Vieillot) and Passer diffusus (Smith), with the description of a new race of the latter’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 76/3 (1956), 40 – subspecies: Passer diffusus luangwae;
  • longirostris (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Long-billed Sparrow – from Latin longus = long, and Latin rostrum = beak – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer rufidorsalis longirostris in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • Loxia (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Crossbill – from Greek λοξος, loxos = crosswise – used by German zoologist Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller for Loxia in Des Ritters Carl von Linné vollständigen Natursystem (Nürnberg: Raspe, 1789) suppl. 148 (first publ. 1776) – synonym of Passer;
  • lutea/luteus = Yellow Sparrow – from Latin lutum = saffron – used by German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein for Fringilla lutea in Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin (Berlin: Trautwein, 1823) 24 (it is unclear why Summers-Smith lists Bonaparte’s Auripasser lutea as it is preceded by Fringilla lutea) – species: Passer luteus;
  • macrorhynchos (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Long-billed Sparrow – from Greek μακρος, makros = long, and Greek ῥυγχος, rhunkhos = bill – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer domesticus macrorhynchos in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • macrourus (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Long-tailed Sparrow – from Greek μακρος, makros = long and Greek ουρα, oura = tail – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer montanus macrourus in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • major (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Greater Sparrow – from Latin comparative of magnus = great – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer rufidorsalis major in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • malaccensis = Malaccan Sparrow – for Malacca, Malaysia – used by Belgian naturalist Alphonse Joseph Charles Dubois for Passer montanus malaccensis in Faune des vertébrés de la Belgique. Serie des oiseaux (Bruxelles: Muquardt, 1887), i. 572–576 – subspecies: Passer montanus malaccensis;
  • maltae = Malta Sparrow – for Malta – used by Ernst Hartert for Passer hispaniolensis maltae in Aus den Wanderjahren eines Naturforschers (Berlin: Friedländer, 1902), 315 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis (or hybrid Passer italiae x Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis as Summers-Smiths lists);
  • manillensis = Manila Sparrow – for Manila, Philippines – used by Japanese ornithologist Masauji Hachisuka for Passer montanus manillensis in ‘Further contributions to the ornithology of the Philippine Islands’, Tori, 11/51–52 (1941), 88–89 – synonym of Passer montanus saturatus;
  • margaretae = Margareta’s Sparrow – for Margareta Johansen (Johansen’s mother) – used by Hans Johansen for Passer montanus margaretae in ‘De Vogelfauna Westsiberiens. II Teil. Systematik und Verbreitung, Oekologie und Biologie der Einzelarten’, Journal für Ornithologie, 92/1–2 (1944), 65 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • Passer montanus maximus
  • maximus = Greatest Sparrow – from Latin maximus, superlative of magnus = great – used by German zoologist Ernst Schäfer for Passer montanus maximus in ‘Third preliminary report on the results of the Second Dolan Expedition to West China and Tibet: four new birds from Tibet’, Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 89 (1938), 385–386 – synonym of Passer montanus tibetanus;
  • megarhynchos (not listed by Summers Smith) = Large-billed Sparrow – from Greek μεγα, mega = much, and Greek ῥυγχος, rhunkhos = bill – used by German ornithologist Christian Ludwig Brehm for Passer rufidorsalis megarhynchos in Naumannia, 6 (1856), 376 (indexed as ‘Ueber einige Sperlinge (Passer und Petronia)’) – synonym of Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • melanorhynchus (not listed by Summers-Smith) – Black-billed Sparrow – from Latin melanorhynchos = black-billed, from Greek μελας, melas = black, and Greek ῥυγχος, rhunkhos = bill – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Pyrgita melanorhynchus in Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s (Cassel: Fischer, 1871), i. 628 – undescribed synonym of either Passer domesticus niloticus or Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • melanura/melanurus – Black-tailed Sparrow – from Greek μελας, melas = black, and Greek ουρα, oura = tail – used by German zoologist Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller for Loxia melanura in Des Ritters Carl von Linné vollständigen Natursystem (Nürnberg: Raspe, 1789) suppl. 153 (first publ. 1776) – species and subspecies: Passer melanurus melanurus;
  • melitensis = Maltese Sparrow – for Malta, from Latin Melite = Malta – Summer-Smith lists melitensis as a hybrid between Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis and Passer italiae without further reference, perhaps an erroneous synonym of Passer hispaniolensis maltae?;
  • mesopotamicus = Mesopotamian Sparrow – for Mesopotamia – used by Ukranian-Russian zoologiest Nikolai Zarudny for Passer mesopotamicus in Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, 15/3 (1904), 108 – synonym of Passer moabiticus moabiticus;
  • microrhynchos (not listed by Summers Smith) = Small-billed Sparrow – from Greek μικρος, mikros = small, and Greek ῥυγχος, rhunkhos = bill – the epithet is used in two different contexts:
    • by German ornithologist Christian Ludwig Brehm for Passer rufidorsalis microrhynchos in Naumannia, 6 (1856), 377 (indexed as ‘Ueber einige Sperlinge (Passer und Petronia)’) – synonym of Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
    • by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer montanus microrhynchos in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • minor = Smaller Sparrow – from Latin minor = smaller – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita minor in ‘Einige Bemerkungen über Sperlinge und über die Zeichnung verwandter Vogelarten’, Isis von Oken, 1842/12, 897 – synonym for Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • moabiticus = Moab Sparrow – from Latin moabites = people from Moab – used by English ornithologist Henry Baker Tristram for Passer moabiticus in Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1864/11 (1864), 169–170 (indexed as H.B. Tristram, ‘Descriptions of new birds from Palestine’) – species and subspecies: Passer moabiticus moabiticus;
  • montana/montanus = Mountain Sparrow – from Latin mons = mountain – used by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) for Fringilla montana in Systema naturæ (10th edn., Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), i. 183 – species and subspecies: Passer montanus montanus;
  • montanoides (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Resembling Tree Sparrow – for Fringilla montana and from Greek -οιδης, -oidēs = resembling – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer montanus montanoides in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • mosambicus/mozambicus = Mozambique Sparrow – for Mozambique – used by Australian zoologist Victor Van Someren for Passer griseus mosambicus in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/259 (1921), 114 (indexed as ‘Descriptions of new subspecies of African birds’) – subspecies: Passer diffusus mosambicus;
  • motitensis = Motito Sparrow – for Motito, near Old Lakatoo, South Africa – used by Scottish zoologist Andrew Smith for Pyrgita Motitentis in Report of the Expedition for Exploring Central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town: Government Gazette Office, 1836), 50 (app. 1) – species and subspecies: Passer motitensis motitensis;
  • neumanni = Neumann’s Sparrow – for German ornithologist Oscar Neumann – used by Otto Eduard Graf von Zedlitz und Trützschler for Passer griseus neumanni in ‘Kurze Notizen zur Ornis von Nordost-Afrika’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 16/11 (1908), 180 – synonym of Passer swainsonii;
  • nigricans = Dusky Sparrow – from Latin niger = black, hence nigricans = blackish, swarthy – used by Armenian ornithologist Leo S. Stepanyan for Passer ammodendri nigricans in ‘The geographical variability of the Saxaul Sparrow (Passer ammodendri Gould)’, Archives of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University, 8 (1961), 220 – subspecies: Passer ammodendri nigricans;
  • nigricollis = Black-throated Sparrow – from Latin niger = black and Latin collum = neck – used by English zoologist Edward Burton for Pyrgita nigricollis in A Catalogue of the Collection of Mammalia and Birds in the Museum of the Army Medical Department, at Fort Pitt, Chatham (Chatham: Burrill, 1838), 23 – synonym of Passer domesticus indicus;
  • nikersoni = Nickerson’s Sparrow – for British Army surgeon George Snyder Nickerson – used by Hungarian ornithologist Gyula Madarász for Passer nikersoni in Annales Musei historico-naturalis hungarici, 9 (1911), 341–342 – synonym for Passer griseus ugandae;
  • niloticus = Nile Sparrow – for Nile, from Latin Niloticus, translated from Greek Νειλωτιχοζ = of the Nile – used by English ornithologists Michael John Nicoll and John James Lewis Bonhote for Passer domesticus niloticus in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 23/153 (1909), 101–102 (indexed as ‘Exhibition and description of a new subspecies of Crested Lark (Galerida cristata mœritica) and of a sparrow (Passer domesticus niloticus) from Egypt’) – subspecies: Passer domesticus niloticus;
  • obscuratus = Dark Sparrow – from Latin obscurare = to darken, obscurus = dark – used by German ornithologist Arnold Jacobi for Passer montanus obscuratus in ‘Zoologische Ergebnisse der Walter Stötznerschen Expeditionen nach Szetschwan, Osttibet und Tschili auf Grund der Sammlungen und Beobachtungen Dr. Hugo Weigolds. 2. Teil. Aves: 4. Fringillidae und Ploceidae’, Abhandlungen und Berichte der Museen für Tierkunde und Völkerkunde zu Dresden, 16/1 (1923), 32 – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • occidentalis = Western Sparrow – from Latin occidens = west – used by English ornithologist George Ernest Shelley for Passer occidentalis in ‘A list of birds collected by the late Mr. W.A. Forbes in the Niger region’, Ibis, 5th ser., 1/4 (1883), 548–549 – synonym of Passer griseus griseus;
  • orientalis = Eastern Sparrow – from Latin oriens = east – here Summers-Smith distinguishes two uses:
  • pagorum = Country Sparrow – from Latin pagus = country, district – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita pagorum in Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands (Ilmenau: Voigt, 1831), 265 – synonym for Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • palaestinae (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Palestinian Sparrow – for Palestine – used Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen for Passer hispaniolensis palaestinae in ‘Über palearktische Formen, III: Der Weidensperling (Passer hispaniolensis Temm.) und seine Formen’, Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, 14/1,2 (1903) 11–12 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus;
  • pallidissimus = Very Pale Sparrow – from Latin superlative of pallidus = pale – used by W.S. Stachanow for Passer montanus pallidissimus in ‘Nouvelles races geographiques de Friquets (Passer montanus) de l’Asie Centrale’, L’Oiseau et Revue francaise d’Ornithologie, NS 3/4 (1933), 789 – synonym for Passer montanus dilutus;
  • pallidus = Pallid Sparrow – from Latin pallidus = pallid, pale – used by Ukranian-Russian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny for Passer montanus pallidus in ‘Les Oiseaux de la Perse orientale. Matériaux ornithologique du voyage fait en 1898’, Mémoires de la Société impériale russe de géographie. Section de géographie générale, 36/2 (1904), 262 – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • parkini = Parkin’s Sparrow – for British naturalist Thomas Parkin – used by English ornithologist Hugh Whistler for Passer domesticus parkini in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/253 (1920), 13–14 (indexed as C.B. Ticehurst, ‘Description of a new subspecies of sparrow (Passer domesticus parkini from Cashmere’) – subspecies: Passer domesticus parkini;
  • parvirostris = Small-billed Sparrow – from Latin parvus = small, and Latin rostrum = beak – used by Japanese ornithologist Tokutaro Momiyama for Passer rutilans parvirostris in ‘Systematic list of the birds collected in Quelpart Island’, Annotationes ornithologiae orientalis, 1/1 (1927), 121, 140 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus rutilans;
  • Passer = Sparrow – from Latin passer = sparrow – used by Mathurin Jacques Brisson for Passer in Ornithologie (Paris: Bauche, 1760), i. 36 – genus: Passer;
  • payni = Payn’s Sparrow – for Lt.-Col. William Arthur Payn (British Army) – used by Japanese ornithologist Masauji Hachisuka for Passer italiae payni in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 47/311 (1927), 76 (indexed as ‘Description of a new race of sparrow (Passer italiae payni) from Corsica’) – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • pectoralis (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Pectoral Sparrow – from Latin pectus, pectoris = breast – used by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin for Pyrgita pectoralis in ‘Ueber die ornithologischen Arbeiten des Herzogs Paul Wilhelm von Würtemberg während seiner Reise in die oberen Nil-Länder’, Journal für Ornithologie, 15/89 (1867), 299 – synonym of Passer domesticus niloticus or Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • persicus = Iranian Sparrow – for Iran, from Latin Persia = present-day Iran – used by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev for Passer domesticus persicus in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 37 – subspecies: Passer domesticus persicus;
  • predomesticus = Pre-House Sparrow – from Latin prae = before, and Latin domesticus – used by Israelian biologist Eitan Tchernov in ‘Paleolithic avifauna in Palestine’, Bulletin of the Research Council of Israel. Section B, Zoology, 11/3 (1962), 100, 102 – disputed extinct species: Passer predomesticus;
  • Pseudostruthus = False Sparrow – from Greek ψευδος, pseudos = false, and Greek στρουθος, strouthos = sparrow – used by French zoologist Émile Oustalet for Pseudostruthus gongonensis in ‘Description de deux nouvelle espèces de l’oiseaux de l’Afrique orientale’, Le Naturaliste, 2nd ser., 4/90 (1890), 274 – synonym of Passer, for Passer gongonensis;
  • Pyrgita = Sparrow – from Greek πυργιτης, purgitēs = sparrow – used by French naturalist Georges Cuvier for Pyrgita in Le règne animal (Paris: Deterville, 1817), 385 – synonym of Passer;
  • Pyrgitopsis (not mentioned by Summers-Smith) = Fake Sparrow – from Pyrgita = sparrow, and Greek οψις, opsis = appearance – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Pyrgitopsis (in order to specify Fringilla humilis) in ‘Notes sur les collections rapportées en 1853, par M.A. Delattre, de son voyage en Californie et dans le Nicaragua’, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 37/25 (1853), 915 – synonym of Passer;
  • pyrrhonotus = Fiery-backed Sparrow – from Greek πυρος, puros = fire, and Greek νωτον, nōton = back – used by English zoologist Edward Blyth for Passer pyrrhonotus in ‘Synopsis of Indian Fringillidæ’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (1845), 946 – species: Passer pyrrhonotus;
  • pyrrhoptera (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Red-winged Sparrow – from Greek πυρρος, purrhos = flame-coloured, red, and Greek -πτερος, -pteros = -winged – used by René Lesson for Fringilla pyrrhoptera in Charles Paulus Bélanger, Voyage aux Indes-Orientales (Paris: Bertrand, 1834), 271–272 – synonym of Passer domesticus;
  • rikuzenica = Rikuzen Sparrow – for Rikuzen Province, Japan – used by S. Kumagai for Passer montanus rikuzenica in S. Kumagai and Tokutaro Momiyama, ‘A list of the birds from Prefecture Miyagi’, Annotationes ornithologiae orientalis, 1/1 (1927), 247 – synonym of Passer montanus saturatus;
  • romae = Roman Sparrow – for Rome, from Latin Roma – used by Francesco Chigi for Passer domesticus romae in ‘Passer hispaniolensis (Temm.) Passer italiae (Vieill.) Passer domesticus (L.)’, Bollettino della Società zoologica italiana, 13, 3rd ser., 1 (1904), 145 (indexed as ‘Sul Passer hispaniolensis, Passer italiae e P. domesticus. Osservazioni comparitive’) – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • ruficinctus/rufocinctus = Rufous-banded Sparrow – from Latin rufus = rufous, and Latin cinctus = banded – used by German explorer Gustav Fischer and German ornithologist Anton Reichenow for Passer rufocinctus in ‘Neue Vogelarten aus dem Massailand (Inneres Ostafrika)’, Journal für Ornithologie, 32/165 (1884), 55 – species: Passer ruficinctus;
  • rufidorsalis = Rufous-backed Sparrow – from Latin rufus = rufous, and Latin dorsum = back – used by German ornithologist Christian Ludwig Brehm for Passer rufidorsalis in ‘Verzeigniss der europäischen Vögel nach den Species und Subspecies’, Naumannia, 5 (1855), 277 – subspecies: Passer domesticus rufidorsalis;
  • rufipectus = Rufous-breasted Sparrow – from Latin rufus = rufous, and Latin pectus = breast – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Passer rufipectus in Conspectus generum avium (Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1850), 509 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • ruppeli (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Rüppell’s Sparrow – for Eduard Rüppell – used by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte for Passer ruppeli in Conspectus generum avium (Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1850), 510 – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • russatus = Russet Sparrow – from Latin russus = russet – used by Dutch ornithologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck and German ornithologist Hermann Schlegel in Ph.Fr. de Siebold [sic], C.J. Temmink, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna japonica (Lugduni Batavorum: Arnz, 1850), iv. 90, pl. 50 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus rutilans;
  • rustica = Rustic Sparrow – from Latin rusticus = rustic, plain, simple – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita rustica in Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands (Ilmenau: Voigt, 1831), 266 – synonym for Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • rutilans = Red Sparrow – from Latin rutilus = auburn, red – used by Coenraad Jacob Temminck for Fringilla rutilans in C.J. Temminck and Guillaume Michel Jérôme Meiffren Laugier, Nouveau recueil de planches coloriées d’oiseaux (Paris: Levrault, 1838) iii. pl. 588 fig. 2, text p. 276 (first publ. 1836) – subspecies: Passer cinnamomeus rutilans;
  • saharae = Sahara Sparrow – for the Sahara – used by German ornithologist Carlo von Erlanger in ‘Beiträge zur Avifauna Tunsiens’, Journal für Ornithologie, 47/4 (1899), 472–476 – subspecies: Passer simplex saharae;
  • salicaria/salicarius = Willow Sparrow – from Latin salix = willow-tree – Summers-Smith lists two entries here:
  • salicicola = Willow-dwelling Sparrow – from Latin salix = willow tree, and Latin colere = to inhabit – used by French ornithologist Louis Pierre Vieillot for Fringilla salicicola in Faune française (Paris: Levrault, 1821), 417–418 – synonym for Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis;
  • Salicipasser (not mentioned by Summers-Smith) – Willow Sparrow – from Latin salix = willow, and Latin passer = sparrow – used by used by Modeste N. Bogdanov for Salicipasser montanus in ‘Птицы Кавказа’ [Birds of the Caucasus], Труды общества естествоиспытателей при Императорском Казанском ун-те [Proceedings of the Society of Naturalists at the Imperial Kazan University], 8/4 (1879), 60 – synonym for Passer montanus transcaucasicus;
  • Passer rutilans yunnanensis
  • saturatus = Richly Coloured Sparrow – from Latin saturatus = richly coloured – used by Norwegian-born American ornithologist Leonhard Stejneger for Passer saturatus in ‘Passer saturatus, a new species of tree-sparrow from the Liu-Kiu Islands, Japan’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 8/2 (1885), 19–20 – subspecies: Passer montanus saturatus;
  • scandens = Ascending Sparrow – from Latin scandere = to climb – used by French naturalist Johann Hermann for Loxia scandens in Tabula affinitatum animalium (Argentorati: Treuttel, 1783), 216–217 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • schaeferi = Schäfer’s Sparrow – for Ernst Schäfer – used by Erwin Stresemann for Passer rutilans schaeferi in ‘Zwei neue Rassen aus Süd-Tibet und Nord-Sikkim’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 47/6 (1939), 176–177 – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus cinnamomeus;
  • schiebeli = Schiebel’s Sparrow – for Austrian zoologist Guido Schiebel – used by Austrian ornithologist Gert Rokitansky for Passer italiae schiebeli in ‘Studien über mediterrane Vögel (Cettia, Passer)’, Falco, 30 (1934), 7 – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • semiretschiensis = Zhetysu Sparrow – for Zhetysu, part of present-day Kazakhstan, from Семиречье = Semiretchensk – used by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev for Passer domesticus semiretschiensis in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 37 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • senckenbergianus = Senckenberg Sparrow – for Senckenberg Museum of Natural History – used by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert for Passer italiae senckenbergianus in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1910), i. 152 (first publ. 1904) – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • septentrionalis = Northern Sparrow – from Latin septentrio = north – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita septentrionalis in Handbuch der Naturgeschichte aller Vögel Deutschlands (Ilmenau: Voigt, 1831), 268 – synonym for Passer montanus montanus;
  • shansiensis = Shanxi Sparrow – for Shanxi Province, China – used by Japanese ornithologists Yoshimaro Yamashina and Yukiyasu Kiyosu for Passer montanus shansiensis in ‘山西省産スズメの新亜種’ [New subspecies of sparrows from Shanxi province], 日本生物地理学会会報 [Bulletin of the Biogeographical Society of Japan], 13/5 (1943), 39 – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • shelleyi = Shelley’s Sparrow – for English ornithologist George Ernest Shelley – used by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe for Passer shelleyi in ‘On the Birds collected by Mr. F.J. Jackson, F.Z.S., during his recent expedition to Uganda through the Territory of the Imperial British East-African Company: Part I’, Ibis, 6th ser., 3/10 (1891), 256 – species: Passer shelleyi;
  • sibiricus = Siberian Sparrow – for Siberia – used by Vitalij A. Chachlov for Passer domesticus sibiricus in ‘Сибирский домовЬій воробй’ [Siberian House Sparrow]/’Passer domesticus sibiricus subsp. nov.’, Uragus, 6/1 (1928), 30 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • simplex = Plain Sparrow – from Latin simplex = simple, plain – used by Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein for Fringilla simplex in Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin (Berlin: Trautwein, 1831), 24 – species and subspecies: Passer simplex simplex;
  • sititoi = Izu Sparrow – for Izu Islands, Japan, an old name is Izu Shichitō = Seven Islands – used by Japanese ornithologist Tokutaro Momiyama for Passer montanus sititoi in 科學の農業 [Kagaku no nōgyō = Agricultural Science], 20/1 (1940), 5 – synonym of Passer montanus saturatus;
  • Sorella = Little Sister Sparrow – from Latin diminutive of soror = sister – used by German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub for Sorella eminibey in ‘Ueber einige neue von Dr. Emin Bey, Gouverneur Aequatorialprovinzen Aegyptens, um Lado, Central-Afrika entdeckte Vögel’, Journal für Ornithologie, 28/150 (1880), 210–211 (erratum 325) – synonym of Passer;
  • soror = Sister Sparrow – from Latin soror = sister – used by American ornithologist Sidney Dillon Ripley for Passer domesticus soror in ‘Comments on Ceylon birds’, Spolia zeylandica, 24/3 (1946), 241 – synonym of Passer domesticus indicus;
  • spadicea (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Light-brown Sparrow – from Latin spadiceus = light brown – used by German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein for Fringilla spadicea in Verzeichniss einer Sammlung von Säugethieren und Vögeln aus dem Kaffernlande (Berlin: Druckerei der Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1842), 15 – synonym of Passer griseus griseus;
  • stegmanni = Shtegman’s Sparrow – for Russian ornithologist Boris Karlovich Shtegman – used by Georgi Petrovich Dementiev for Passer montanus stegmanni in Alauda, 3rd ser., 5/1 (1933), 110 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • stoliczkae (Summers-Smith lists stolickzae erroneously) = Stoliczka’s Sparrow – for Moravian zoologist Ferdinand Stoliczka – used by British ornithologist Allan Octavian Hume for Passer stoliczkæ in ‘Novelties’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 516–518 – subspecies: Passer ammodendri stoliczkae;
  • stygiceps = Dark-headed Sparrow – for Styx or Latin Stygius, and Latin caput = head – used by Scottish ornithologist Phillip Clancey for Passer griseus stygiceps in ‘Miscellaneous taxonomic notes on African birds V: 2. A new subspecies of Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseus (Vieillot) from Natal, South Africa’, Durban Museum Novitates, 4/9 (1954), 116–117 – subspecies: Passer diffusus stygiceps;
  • suahelicus = Swahili Sparrow – for the Swahili coast, from Arabic sawāhil = coasts – used by Anton Reichenow for Passer griseus suahelicus in Die Vögel Afrikas (Neudamm: Neumann, 1904), iii. 231 – species: ;
  • subsolanus = Eastern Sparrow – from Latin subsolanus = eastern, from sub = beneath and sol = sun – used by Scottish ornithologist Phillip Clancey for Passer iagoensis subsolanus in ‘Miscellaneous taxonomic notes on African birds XXI: New subspecies of the Greater Sparrow Passer iagoensis (Gould) and Black-cheeked Waxbill Estrilda erythronotos (Vieillot) from South Africa’, Durban Museum Novitates, 7/5 (1964), 138–139 – subspecies: Passer motitensis subsolanus;
  • swainsonii = Swainson’s Sparrow – for English ornithologist William John Swainson – used by German naturalist Eduard Rüppell for Pyrgita swainsonii in Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig (Frankfurt am Main: Schmerber, 1840), 94 – species: Passer swainsonii;
  • taivanensis = Taiwan Sparrow – for Taiwan – used by used by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert for Passer montanus taivanensis (as Passer montana taivanensis) in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1910), i. Heft 2, 161 (first publ. 1904) – synonym of Passer montanus saturatus;
  • tauricus = Crimean Sparrow – from Latin Taurica = Crimea, for Tauri – used by Ukranian-Soviet ornithologist Leonid Portenko for Passer domesticus tauricus in in Птицы СССР [Birds of the USSR] (Moscow: Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 1960), iv. 244 – synonym of Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • terekius = Terek Sparrow – for the Terek River – used by Russian ornithologist Sergei Buturlin for Passer hispaniolensis terekius in Систематические заметки о птицах Северного Кавказа [Systematic Notes on the Birds of the North Caucasus] (Makhachkala: Association of North Caucasus Ethnographic Societies, 1929), 41 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus;
  • tertale = Tertale Sparrow – for Tertale, near Yabelo, Ethiopia – used by Constantine Walter Benson for Passer griseus tertale in ‘A new species and ten new races from Southern Abyssinia’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 63/444 (1942), 17 – synonym of Passer gongonensis;
  • thierryi = Thierry’s Sparrow – for German civil servant Gaston Thierry – used by German ornithologist Anton Reichenow for Passer diffusus thierryi in ‘Zur Tierverbreitung in Afrika’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 7/12 (1899), 190 – synonym of Passer griseus griseus;
  • tibetanus = Tibetan Sparrow – for Tibet – used by E. C. Stuart Baker for Passer montanus tibetanus in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 45/296 (1925), 92–93 (indexed as ‘Descriptions of new subspecies of finches: Procarduelis nipalensis intensicolor, Passer montanus tibetanus‘) – subspecies: Passer montanus tibetanus;
  • tilemsiensis (Summers-Smith lists tilmenensis erroneously) = Tilemsi Sparrow – for Tilemsi, Mali – used by American naturalist George Latimer Bates for Auripasser luteus tilemsiensis in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 53/364 (1933), 72 (indexed as ‘Descriptions of two new subspecies, Auripasser luteus tilemsiensis and Tchagra senegala timbuktana, and Mesopicos goertce agmen, nom. nov., from French Niger and French Sudan’) – synonym of Passer luteus luteus;
  • timidus = Timid Sparrow – from Latin timere = to be afraid – used by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe in Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum (London: Taylor & Francis, 1888), xii. 339 – synonym of Passer ammodendri stoliczkae;
  • tingitanus = Tangier Sparrow – for Tangier, from Latin Tingis = Tangier (probably through Roman Tingitana) – used by French naturalist Victor Loche for Passer domesticus tingitanus in Histoire naturelle des oiseaux (Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1867), i. 132 – subspecies: Passer domesticus tingitanus;
  • tokunagai (Summers-Smith lists tokungai erroneously) = Tokunaga’s Sparrow – for Shigeyasu Tokunaga – used by Japanese ornithologists Nagamichi Kuroda and Yoshimaro Yamashina for Passer montanus tonkunagai in N. Taka-Tsukasa, M. Hachisuka, N. Kuroda, Y. Yamashina and S. Uchida, ‘Birds of Jedo’, in Shigeyasu Tokunaga (ed.) Report of the First Scientific Expedition to Manchoukuo, June-October 1933 (Tokyo: Daiichiji Man-Mō Gakujutsu Chōsa Kenkyūdan, 1935), sect. 5, div. 2, pt 3, 55, 87, pl. 24 – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • tokyoi (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Tokyo Sparrow – for Tokyo – used by Japanese ornithologist Tokutaro Momiyama for Passer montana tokyoi in Annotationes ornithologiae orientalis, 1/3 (1928), 404 – synonym of Passer montanus saturatus;
  • transcaspicus = Transcaspian Sparrow – from Latin trans = beyond, and for Caspian Sea – used by Austrian ornithologist Victor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen for Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus in Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 10/6 (1902), 96 – subspecies: Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus;
  • transcaucasicus = Transcaucasus Sparrow – from Latin trans = beyond, for Caucasus – used by Russian ornithologist Sergei Buturlin for Passer montanus transcaucasicus in ‘On the birds collected in Transcaucasia by Mr. A.M. Kobylin’, Ibis, 8th ser., 6/23 (1906), 423 – subspecies: Passer montanus transcaucasicus;
  • turkanae = Turkana Sparrow – for Turkana County, Kenya – used by Swedish ornithologist Sven Hugo Granvik for Passer griseus turkanae in Revue de zoologie et de botanique africaines, 25 (1934), 150 – synonym of Passer swainsonii;
  • ugandae = Uganda Sparrow – for Uganda – used by Anton Reichenow for Passer griseus ugandae in Die Vögel Afrikas (Neudamm: Neumann, 1904), iii. 231 – subspecies: Passer griseus ugandae;
  • valida (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Stout Sparrow – from Latin validus = strong, stout – used by Christian Ludwig Brehm for Pyrgita valida in ‘Einige Bemerkungen über Sperlinge und über die Zeichnung verwandter Vogelarten’, Isis von Oken, 1842/12 (1842), 887 – synonym for Passer domesticus domesticus;
  • valloni = Vallon’s Sparrow – for Italian ornithologist Graziano Vallon – used by Francesco Chigi for Passer domesticus valloni in ‘Passer domesticus (Lin.)’, Bollettino della Società zoologica italiana, 15, 2nd ser., 6 (1906), 50 – synonym of Passer italiae;
  • vicinus (Summers-Smith lists vicinis erroneously) – Village Sparrow – from Latin vicus = town, village – used by Scottish ornithologist Phillip Clancey for Passer melanurus vicinus in ‘Polytypic variation in the sparrow Passer melanurus (Müller)’, 78/3 (1958), 59–60 – subspecies: Passer melanurus vicinus;
  • volgensis = Volga Sparrow – for the River Volga – used by Russian zoologist Sergey Ognev for Passer monatus volgensis in ‘НовЫй подвидЪ полевого воробЪя/Eine neue geographische Form des Feldsperlings: Passer montanus volgensis subsp. nov.’, Орнитологическій вестникЪ/Messager ornithologique, 4/1 (1913), 41–45 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • vulgaris (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Common Sparrow – from Latin vulgaris = common, ordinary – used by German zoologist Alfred Brehm for Passer montanus vulgaris in Verzeichniss der nachgelassenen Sammlung (meist) europäischer Vögel von Dr. Ch. L. Brehm, weil. Pfarrer zu Renthendorf in Thüringen, nach Arten (species) und Unterarten (subspecies) (Leipzig: Grumbach, 1866), 9 – synonym of Passer montanus montanus;
  • washingtoni (not listed by Summers-Smith) = Washington’s Sparrow – for Austrian naturalist Stefan Washington – used by Austrian ornithologist Viktor von Tschusi zu Schmidhoffen for Passer hispaniolensis washingtoni in ‘Über palearktische Formen, III: Der Weidensperling (Passer hispaniolensis Temm.) und seine Formen’, Ornithologisches Jahrbuch, 14/1,2 (1903), 9–10 – synonym of Passer hispaniolensis transcaspicus;
  • yatii = Yate’s Sparrow – for English administrator in India Charles Yate – used by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe for Passer yatii in Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum (London: Taylor & Francis, 1888), xii. 322–323 – subspecies: Passer moabiticus yatii;
  • yunnanensis = Yunnan Sparrow – for Yunnan Province, China – used by Irish ornithologist John David Digues La Touche for Passer rutilans yunnanensis in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 43/277 (1923), 120 (indexed as ‘Description of a new subspecies of sparrow, Passer rutilans yunnanensis, from S.E. Yunnan’) – synonym of Passer cinnamomeus intensior;
  • zaissanensis = Zaysan Sparrow – for Lake Zaysan, Kazakhstan – ‘Новая форма полевого воробья/Eine neue Form des Feldsperlings: Passer montanus zaissanensis subsp. nov.’, Орнитологическій вестникЪ/Messager ornithologique, 2/2 (1911), 150–154 – synonym of Passer montanus dilutus;
  • zarudnyi = Zarudny’s Sparrow – for Nikolai Zarudny – used by Theodor Pleske for Passer simplex zarudnyi in ‘Описаніе новой разновидности пустыннаго воробя (Passer simplex zarudnyi, n. subsp.) изъ Закаспійской облати’ [Description of a new species of desert sparrow (Passer simplex zarudnyi, n. subsp.) from the Transcaspian region], Annuaire de Musée zoologique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Pétersbourg, 1 (1896), 31–33 (French index lists: ‘Description d’une nouvelle varieté du Passer simplex de la province Transcaspienne’) – synonym of Passer zarudnyi;
  • zedlitzi = Zedlitz’s Sparrow – for German ornithologist Otto Eduard Graf von Zedlitz und Trützschler – used by Swedish ornithologist Nils Carl Gustaf Fersen Gyldenstolpe for Passer griseus zedlitzi in ‘On the West African form of Passer griseus Vieillot’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 43/272 (1922), 32–33 – synonym of Passer griseus ugandae.

Old World Sparrows (1)

House Sparrow Passer domesticusElegant yet dumpy, conspicuous yet dull, sophisticated yet streetwise, widespread yet local, sparrows are blessed with all these properties. Since some sparrow species have been associated with human habitation, naming them has been an old habit. Thus, for instance, in the fourth century BC Aristotle mentions ‘sparrows’ (no distinction is made to any of the three Greek species, or even to Rock Sparrow Petronia petronia or White-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis) in Natural History, in J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (eds.), The Works of Aristotle, iv: Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 613a29–34, 613b1.

Passer was first mentioned by Mathurin Jacques Brisson in an identification ‘Table Méthodique des oiseaux divisés en ordres’ in his Ornithologie (Paris: Bauche, 1760), i. 36, a full description was published in a later volume, Ornithologie (Paris: Bauche, 1760), iii. 71–72, although here the genus is presented as a group called Passerinum (= sparrow-like, from Latin -inus = adjectival suffix: pertaining to), whereas the subsequent species accounts are all Passer.

The International Ornithological Congress World Bird List lists 28 Passer species and 48 subspecies. A bibliography and translation of their names follows here.

  • Saxaul SparrowPasser ammodendri = Saxaul Sparrow – most likely for Haloxylan ammodendron Black Saxaul and not for the genus Ammodendron Sand Acacia, still from Greek άμμος, ammos = sand, and Greek δένδρον, dendron = tree – discovered by Russian naturalist Nikolai Severtzov, collected by Charles Dode, who presented specimen at the 16 May 1871 meeting of the Zoological Society of London, published in Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1871/31, 480–481 (indexed as ‘Exhibition of, and remarks upon, animals from the Amoor and Turkestan’), and described by English ornithologist John Gould in Birds of Asia (London: Gould, 1872) v. pl. 15, pt 24, as Turkestan Sparrow;
    • P. a. ammodendri – the nominate form;
    • P. a. nigricans = Dusky Sparrow – from Latin niger = black, and Latin -ans = adjectival suffix, hence nigricans = blackish, swarthy – described by Armenian ornithologist Leo S. Stepanyan in ‘The geographical variability of the Saxaul Sparrow (Passer ammodendri Gould)’, Archives of the Zoological Museum of Moscow State University, 8 (1961), 220;
    • P. a. stoliczkae = Stoliczka’s Sparrow – for Moravian palaeontologist Ferdinand Stoliczka, who collected the type specimen, and Latin -e = adjectival suffix – described by British ornithologist Allan Octavian Hume as part of ‘Novelties’, Stray Feathers, 2/6 (1874), 516–518, as Passer Stoliczkæ;
  • House SparrowPasser domesticus = House Sparrow – from Latin domus = house, and Latin -ticus = adjectival suffix, enlargement of -cus = characteristic of – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturæ (10th edn., Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), i. 183, as Fringilla domestica with Passer domesticus in the list of synonyms;
    • P. d. domesticus – the nominate form;
    • P. d. balearoibericus = Hispanic Sparrow – for Balearic Islands, from Latin Baleares = Balearic Islands, and Latin -o = suffix, here interfix, and for Iberian Peninsula, from Latin Hiberia = Iberia, and Latin -cus = adjectival suffix (characteristic of) – described by German ornithologist Adolf von Jordans in ‘Neue Vogelrassen von den Balearen’, Falco, 19/Sonderheft (1923), 4;
    • P. d. biblicus = Biblical Sparrow – from Latin biblia = Bible, and Latin -cus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – the type specimen, a male collected on 2 April 1897 near Sueme in Palestine, was acquired by German natural history dealer Wilhelm Schlüter and described by Ernst Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1904) i. Heft 2, 149, as Passer domestica biblicus;
    • P. d. hyrcanus = Hyrcanian Sparrow – for Hyrcania, from Latin Hyrcania, and Latin -us = masculine adjectival suffix – described by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 38;
    • P. d. persicus = Iranian Sparrow – for Iran, from Latin Persia = Iran, and Latin -cus = adjectival suffix (characteristic of) – described by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 37;
    • P. d. indicus = Indian Sparrow – for India, from Latin India, and Latin -cus = adjectival suffix (characteristic of) – described by Scottish naturalist William Jardine and English ornithologist Prideaux John Selby in Illustrations of Ornithology (Edinburgh: Lizars, 1831) iii. pl. 118, p. 29;
    • P. d. bactrianus = Bactrian Sparrow – for Bactria, from Latin Bactria (or Bactriana), and Latin -us = masculine adjectival suffix – described by Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny and A.E. Kudashev in Наша охота, 20 (1916), 37;
    • P. d. parkini = Parkin’s Sparrow – for British naturalist Thomas Parkin, and Latin -i = masculine adjectival suffix – at the 250th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club on 13 October 1920, English ornithologist Claude B. Tivehurst presented the species on behalf of English ornithologist Hugh Whistler, who had collected and described the type specimen at Srinagar, Kashmir, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/253 (1920), 13–14;
    • P. d. hufufae = Hofuf Sparrow – for Al-Hofuf (or Hufuf), and Latin -ae = adjectival suffix – presented to the 286th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club on 8 October 1924, the type specimen was collected by Percy Cox and English ornithologist Robert Ernest Cheesman in Al-Hofuf, described by English ornithologist Claude B. Tivehurst and Cheesman in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 45/290 (1924), 19–20;
    • P. d. tingitanus = Tangier Sparrow – for Tangier, from Latin Tingis = Tangier (probably through the Roman Tingitana, and Latin -us = adjectival suffix – described by French naturalist Victor Loche in Histoire naturelle des oiseaux (Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1867) i. 132;
    • P. d. niloticus = Nile Sparrow – for Nile, from Latin Niloticus, translated from Greek Νειλωτιχοζ = of the Nile – presented to the 152nd meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club on 16 June 1909, collected by English ornithologists Michael John Nicoll and John James Lewis Bonhote in Faiyum, description published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 23/153 (1909), 101–102;
    • P. d. rufidorsalis = Rufous-backed Sparrow – from Latin rufus = rufous, and Latin dorsum = back, and Latin -alis = relational adjectival suffix – described briefly by German ornithologist Christian Ludwig Brehm in ‘Verzeigniss der europäischen Vögel nach den Species und Subspecies’, Naumannia, 5 (1855), 277;

    HBW distinguishes two groups: a domesticus group (House Sparrow), which includes P. d. domesticus, P. d. balearoibericus, P. d. tingitanus, P. d. niloticus, P. d. biblicus, P. d. persicus; and an indicus group (Indian Sparrow), which includes P. d. hyrcanus, P. d. indicus, P. d. rufidorsalis, P. d. hufufae, P. d. bactrianus, P. d. parkini;

  • Italian SparrowPasser italiae = Italian Sparrow – for Italy, from Latin Italia = Italy, and Latin -e = adjectival suffix – described by French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle (new edn., Paris: Deterville, 1817), xii. 199–200;
  • Spanish SparrowPasser hispaniolensis = Iberian Sparrow – for Hispania, from Latin Hispania = Iberian Peninsula, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by Coenraad Jacob Temminck in Manuel d’ornithologie (2nd edn., Paris: Cousin, 1820), i. 353–354, as Gros-bec espanol Fringilla hispaniolensis, where gros-bec = hawfinch in the Manuel, and Latin fringilla = finch;
  • Sind SparrowPasser pyrrhonotus = Fiery backed Sparrow – from Greek πυρος, puros = fire, and Greek νωτον, nōton = back – collected by British explorer Alexander Burnes at Buhawalpur (as Burawalpore) in ‘Seinde’ (Sindh?), described by English zoologist Edward Blyth in ‘Synopsis of Indian Fringillidæ’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (1845), 946;
  • Somali SparrowPasser castanopterus = Chestnut-winged Sparrow – from Greek καστανον, kastanon = chestnut, and Greek -πτερος, -pteros = -winged – described by English zoologist Edward Blyth in ‘Report of a zoological collection from the Somali country’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 24/4 (1855), 302;
    • P. c. castanopterus = the nominate form;
    • P. c. fulgens = Shining Sparrow – from Latin fulgere = to shine, and Latin -ens = adjectival suffix – the type specimen was part of the collection at the United States National Museum, collected by American ornithologist Edgar Alexander Mearns in Indunumara Mountains, Kenya on 15 July 1912, described by American ornithologist Herbert Friedmann in ‘The geographic forms of the Somali Sparrow, Passer castanopterus Blyth’, Occasional Papers of the Boston Society of Natural History, 5 (1931), 428;
  • Russet SparrowPasser cinnamomeus = Cinnamon-coloured Sparrow – from Latin cinnamomum = cinnamon, and Latin -eus = attributive adjectival suffix – presented by English ornithologist John Gould at the 8 December 1935 meeting of the Zoological Society of London, description published in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 3 1835/36 (1836), 184 (indexed as ‘Characters of several new species of incessorial birds, including a new genus (Stenorhynchus)’), as Pyrgita cinnamomea;

    Recent name change of Passer rutilans to Passer cinnamomeus after research by Czech ornithologist Jiří Mlíkovský showed that cinnamomeus (Gould) was published nearly nine months before rutilans (Temminck), in ‘Correct name for the Asian Russet Sparrow’, Chinese Birds, 2/2 (2011), 109–110;

  • Plain-backed SparrowPasser flaveolus = Yellowish Sparrow – from Latin flavus = golden, yellow, and Latin -olus diminutive suffix – ‘procured’ by Arthur Purves Phayre in Arakan (present-day Rakhine State), Myanmar, described by English zoologist Edward Blyth in ‘Synopsis of Indian Fringillidæ’, Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 13/156 (1845), 946–947;
  • Dead Sea SparrowPasser moabiticus = Moab Sparrow – from Latin moabites = people from Moab, and Latin -icus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – exhibited at the Scientific Meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 26 April 1864, by Philip Sclater, collected in Palestine by English ornithologist Henry Baker Tristram, who described the species in Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1864/11 (1864), 169–170 (indexed as H.B. Tristram, ‘Descriptions of new birds from Palestine’);
  • Iago SparrowPasser iagoensis = Santiago Sparrow – for Santiago, Cape Verde, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – the type specimen was collected by English naturalist Charles Darwin at Santiago (as St. Iago) and exhibited at the 25 July 1837 meeting of the Zoological Society of London by English ornithologist John Gould, who described the species in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pt 5 1837/55 (1838), 77–78, as Pyrgita Iagoensis – HBW lists this species as Cape Verde Sparrow;
  • Great SparrowPasser motitensis = Motito Sparrow – for Motito, near Old Lakatoo, South Africa, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by Scottish zoologist Andrew Smith in Report of the Expedition for Exploring Central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town: Government Gazette Office, 1836), 50 (app. 1), as Pyrgita Motitentis;
    • P. m. benguellensis = Benguela Sparrow – for Benguela (former spelling Benguella), and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by British ornithologist Hubert Lynes in ‘On the birds of North and Central Darfur: taxo‐nomic appendix – Part III–X’, Ibis, 68/2 (1926), 380;
    • P. m. motitensis – the nominate form;
    • P. m. subsolanus = Eastern Sparrow – from Latin subsolanus = eastern, from Latin sub = beneath, and Latin sol, solis = sun – type specimen collected in Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) on 14 April 1951, placed in the collection of the National Museum of Southern Rhodesia, where it was discovered by Swedish zoologist Gustaf Rudebeck in 1956, but not named, described by Scottish ornithologist Phillip Clancey in Durban Museum Novitates, 7/5 (1964), 138–139;
  • Socotra Sparrow Passer insularisSocotra SparrowPasser insularis = Island Sparrow – from Latin insula = island, and Latin -is = adjectival suffix – collected by Scottish botanist Isaac Bayley Balfour in Socotra in February–March 1880, described by English zoologist Philip Sclater and German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub in ‘On the birds collected in Socotra by Prof. I.B. Balfour’, Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1881/11, 169–170, paper read to the meeting of the Zoological Society of London on 18 January 1881;
  • Abd al-Kuri SparrowPasser hemileucus = Half-white Sparrow – from Greek prefix ἡμι-, hēmi- = half, and Greek λευκος, leukos = white – collected by Scottish ornithologists William Robert Ogilvie-Grant and Henry Ogg Forbes on Abd al Kuri, December 1898/February 1899, during an expedition to Socotra, described in ‘The expedition to Sokotra: I. Descriptions of the new species of birds’, Bulletin of the Liverpool Museums, 2/1 (1899), 3 – split from Passer insularis after 2008 recommendation;
  • Kenya SparrowPasser rufocinctus = Rufous-banded Sparrow – from Latin rufus = rufous, and Latin cinctus = banded – discovered by German explorer Gustav Fischer near Lake Naivasha, presented by Fischer and German ornithologist Anton Reichenow at the 3 December 1883 meeting of the Allgemeinen deutschen Ornithologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, description published in ‘Neue Vogelarten aus dem Massailand (Inneres Ostafrika)’, Journal für Ornithologie, 32/165 (1884), 55;
  • Shelley’s SparrowPasser shelleyi = Shelley’s Sparrow – for English ornithologist George Ernest Shelley, and Latin -i = adjectival suffix – collected by Frederick John Jackson, described by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe in ‘On the birds collected by Mr. F.J. Jackson, F.Z.S., during his recent expedition to Uganda through the territory of the Imperial British East-African Company: Part I’, Ibis, 6th ser. 3/10 (1891), 256 – split from Passer rufocinctus after 2004 recommendation – HBW lists this species as White Nile Sparrow;
  • Kordofan SparrowPasser cordofanicus = Kordofan Sparrow – for Kordofan, Sudan, and Latin -icus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – mentioned by German ornithologist Theodor von Heuglin in Nachträge und Berichtigungen zur Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s, appendix to Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika’s (Cassel: Fischer, 1871), ii. app. 141 – split from Passer rufocinctus after 2004 recommendation;
  • Cape SparrowPasser melanurus = Black-tailed Sparrow – from Greek μελανος, melanos = black, and Greek -ουρος, -ouros = -tailed – described by German zoologist Philipp Ludwig Statius Müller in Des Ritters Carl von Linné vollständigen Natursystem (Nürnberg: Raspe, 1789), suppl. 153 (first publ. 1776);
    • P. m. damarensis = Damara Sparrow – for Damaraland, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected by Anton Lübbert, briefly described by Anton Reichenow in ‘Neue Vogelarten aus Damaraland’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 10/5 (1902), 77, as Passer arcuatus damarensis;
    • P. m. melanurus – the nominate form;
    • P. m. vicinus = Village Sparrow – from Latin vicus = town, village, and Latin -inus = adjectival suffix – collected by M.O.E. Baddeley near Bethlehem, Free State province, South Africa, on 28 July 1955, described by Scottish ornithologist Phillip Clancey in ‘Polytypic variation in the sparrow Passer melanurus (Müller)’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 78/3 (1958), 59–60;
  • Northern Grey-headed SparrowPasser griseus = Grey Sparrow – from Latin griseus = grey – described by French ornithologist Louis Jean Pierre Vieillot in Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle (new edn., Paris: Deterville, 1817), xii. 198, as Fringilla grisea, and with distribution ‘United States’ (perhaps an allusion to the Four Communes);
    • P. g. griseus – the nominate form;
    • P. g. laeneni = Laenen’s Sparrow – for Belgian ornithologist Julien René Laenen, and Latin -i = adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Günther Niethammer near Bol, on the eastern border of Lake Chad, on 1 April 1954, described in ‘Zur Vogelwelt des Ennedi-Gebirges (Französisch Äquatorial-Afrika)’, Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 6/1–2 (1955), 75–76;
    • P. g. ugandae = Uganda Sparrow – for Uganda, and Latin -e = adjectival suffix – described briefly by Anton Reichenow in Die Vögel Afrikas (Neudamm: Neumann, 1904), iii. 231;
  • Swainson’s SparrowPasser swainsonii = Swainson’s Sparrow – for English ornithologist William John Swainson, and Latin -ii = adjectival suffix – described by German naturalist Eduard Rüppell in Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig (Frankfurt am Main: Schmerber, 1840), 94, as Pyrgita Swainsonii;
  • Parrot-billed SparrowPasser gongonensis = Gongoni Sparrow – for Gongoni, Kenya, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – collected at Gongoni in July 1880, described by French zoologist Émile Oustalet in ‘Description de deux nouvelle espèces d’oiseaux de l’Afrique orientale’, Le naturaliste, 2nd ser., 4/90 (1890), 274, as both Passer gononensis and Pseudostruthus gongonensis, though the former is mentioned first;
  • Swahili SparrowPasser suahelicus = Swahili Sparrow – for the Swahili Coast, and Latin -cus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – described briefly by Anton Reichenow in Die Vögel Afrikas (Neudamm: Neumann, 1904), iii. 231, as Passer griseus suahelicus;
  • Southern Grey-headed SparrowPasser diffusus = Widespread Sparrow – from Latin diffusus = diffuse, extensive – described by Scottish zoologist Andrew Smith in Report of the Expedition for Exploring Central Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope (Cape Town: Government Gazette Office, 1836), 50 (app. 1), as Pyrgita diffusa;
    • P. d. luangwae = Luangwa Sparrow – for the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, and Latin -e = adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by English ornithologist Constantine Walter Benson in the Luangwa Valley, Mpika District, Zambia, on 21 June 1954, described in ‘The relationship between Passer griseus (Vieillot) and Passer diffusus (Smith), with the description of a new race of the latter’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 76/3 (1956), 40;
    • P. d. mosambicus = Mozambique Sparrow – for Mozambique, and Latin -us = adjectival suffix – at the 256th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 13 April 1921, Australian zoologist Victor Van Someren presented in absentia a description of the type specimen, collected near Lumbo, Mozambique (then Portuguese East Africa), on 13 July 1918, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/259 (1921), 114, as Passer griseus mosambicus;
    • P. d. diffusus – the nominate form;
    • P. d. stygiceps = Dark-headed Sparrow – from Latin stygius = relating to the River Styx, the underworld, i.e. dark, and Latin -ceps = -headed – described by Scottish ornithologist Phillip Clancey in ‘Miscellaneous taxonomic notes on African birds V: 2. A new subspecies of Grey-headed Sparrow Passer griseus (Vieillot) from Natal, South Africa’, Durban Museum Novitates, , 4/9 (1954), 116, as Passer griseus stygiceps;
  • Desert SparrowPasser simplex = Plain Sparrow – from Latin simplex = simple, plain – described briefly by Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein in Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin (Berlin: Trautwein, 1831), 24, as Fringilla simplex;
    • P. s. saharae = Sahara Sparrow – for the Sahara, and Latin -e = adjectival suffix – collected by German ornithologist Carlo von Erlanger in ‘Beiträge zur Avifauna Tunsiens’, Journal für Ornithologie, 47/4 (1899) 472–476;
    • P. s. simplex – the nominate form;
  • Zarudny’s SparrowPasser zarudnyi = Zarudny’s Sparrow – for Ukranian zoologist Nikolai Zarudny, and Latin -i = adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by Russian zoologist Theodor Pleske in Transcaspian Oblast on 18 April 1892, decribed in ‘Описаніе новой разновидности пустыннаго воробья (Passer simplex Zarudnyi, n. subsp.) изъ Закаспійской области’ [Description of a new variety of Desert Sparrow (Passer simplex Zarudnyi, n. subsp.) from the Transcaspian Province], Annuaire du Musée zoologique de l’Académie impériale des sciences de St.-Péterbourg, 1 (1896), 32 (French index lists: ‘Description d’une nouvelle varieté du Passer simplex de la province Transcaspienne’), as Passer simplex Zarudnyi – 2009 split from Passer simplex;
  • Tree Sparrow Passer montanusEurasian Tree SparrowPasser montanus = Mountain Sparrow – from Latin mons, montis = mountain, and Latin -anus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturæ (10th edn., Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), i. 183, as Fringilla montana with Passer montanus in the list of synonyms;
    • P. m. montanus – the nominate form
    • P. m. dybowskii = Dybowski’s Sparrow – for Polish naturalist Benedykt Dybowski, and Latin -i = adjectival suffix – described by Polish ornithologist Janusz Domaniewski in Comptes rendus des séances de al Société des sciences de Varsovie, 8/7 (1915), 562, 566;
    • P. m. transcaucasicus = Transcaucasus Sparrow – from Latin trans- = beyond, for Caucasus, and Latin -icus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – collected by Russian zoologist Aleksandr Mihajlovič Kobylin in Transcaucasia, described by Russian ornithologist Sergei Buturlin in ‘On the birds collected in Transcaucasia by Mr. A.M. Kobylin’, Ibis, 8th ser., 6/23 (1906), 423;
    • P. m. kansuensis = Gansu Sparrow – for Gansu Province, China, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by Erwin Stresemann in ‘Neue Formen aus Nord-Kansu VIII’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 40/2 (1932), 55;
    • P. m. dilutus = Pale Sparrow – from Latin dilutus = weak, diluted – type specimen collected by American ornithologist William Louis Abbott near Kashgar, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China (then Turkestan) on 21 March 1894, described by American ornithologist Charles Wallace Richmond in ‘Catalogue of a collection of birds made by Doctor W.L. Abbott in eastern Turkestan, the Thian-Shan Mountains, and Tagdumbash Pamir, central Asia, with notes on some of the species’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 18/1083 (1896), 575;
    • P. m. tibetanus = Tibetan Sparrow – for Tibet, and Latin -anus = adjectival suffix (pertaining to) – type specimen collected by English naturalist Herbert Walton near Khumbajong, Tibet, in October 1903, described by E. C. Stuart Baker at the 292th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club on 8 April 1925, published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 45/296 (1925), 92–93;
    • P. m. saturatus = Richly Coloured Sparrow – from Latin saturatus = richly coloured – type specimen collected by American scientist William Stimpson on the Ryakyu Islands (as Liu-Kiu Islands), Japan, in November 1854, described by Norwegian-born American ornithologist Leonhard Stejneger in ‘Passer saturatus, a new species of tree-sparrow from the Liu-Kiu Islands, Japan’, Proceedings of the United States National Museum, 8/2 (1885), 19–20, as Passer saturatus;
    • P. m. hepaticus = Liver-coloured Sparrow – from Latin hepar = liver, and Latin -aticus = relational adjectival suffix – type specimen collected by American ornithologist Sidney Dillon Ripley near Tezu in the Mishmi Hills, on the border of Indai and Tibet, on 11 January 1947, described in ‘New birds from the Mishmi Hills’, Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington, 61 (1948), 106–107;
    • P. m. malaccensis = Malacca Sparrow – for Malacca, and Latin -ensis = geographical adjectival suffix – described by Belgian naturalist Alphonse Joseph Charles Dubois in Faune des vertébrés de la Belgique. Serie des oiseaux (Bruxelles: Muquardt, 1887), i. 572–576, as Passer montanus var. Malaccensis – although an extensive description had already been published by Dutch scientist Adolphe Vorderman in ‘Batavische vogels, II’, Natuurkundig tijdschrift voor Nederlandsch Indië, 42 (1883), 82–83, no distictive epithet had been connected with the specimen, only as ‘an Asian variety’ of Passer montanus;
  • Sudan Golden SparrowPasser luteus = Saffron-yellow Sparrow – from Latin luteus = saffron-yellow – described briefly by Anton August Heinrich Lichtenstein in Verzeichniss der Doubletten des Zoologischen Museums der Königl. Universität zu Berlin (Berlin: Trautwein, 1831), 24, as Fringilla lutea;
  • Arabian Golden SparrowPasser euchlorus = Light-green Sparrow – from Greek ευ, eu = fine, and Greek χλωρος, khlōros = light green – described by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte (as Carolo Luciano Bonaparte) in Conspectus generum avium (Luduni Batavorum, Brill, 1850), i. 519, as Auripasser euchlora;
  • Chestnut SparrowPasser eminibey = Emin Bey’s Sparrow – for German-Ottoman naturalist Emin Pasha (born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, Bey is a Turkish title), and Latin -i = adjectival suffix, here interfix – discovered by Emin Pasha (Emin Bey), described by German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub in ‘Ueber einige neue von Dr. Emin Bey, Gouverneur Aequatorialprovinzen Aegyptens, um Lado, Central-Afrika entdeckte Vögel’, Journal für Ornithologie, 28/150 (1880), 211 (erratum 325), as Sorella Emini Bey.

Garrulus Jays

Black-headed Jay Garrulus lanceolatus Garrulus jays were first mentioned quite clearly (as κίττα, kitta = jay) in Aristotle‘s Natural History, in J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross (eds.), The Works of Aristotle, iv: Historia animalium, trans. D’Arcy Wentworth Thompson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), 615b22–23, where it is characterized by: ‘when acorns are getting scarce, it lays up a store of them in hiding.’

The Latin pica seems to have been used to describe both jay and magpie. According to Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner (as Conradi Gesneri), in his Historiæ animalium (Francofurdi: Ex officina typographica Ioannis Wecheli, 1585), iii. (first publ. 1555), jays were closely related to magpies: ‘Sed pica glandaria alterum picae genus est’ = ‘Jay is a variety of magpie’. In a later work of bird plates, Icones avium omnium (Tiguri: C. Froschovurus, 1560), 26, 28, jay receives the Latin epithet Pica glandaria = Acorn-producing Magpie, from Latin pica = magpie, jay, Latin glans = acorn, and Latin -aria = feminine adjectival suffix, whereas magpie becomes Pica varia vel caudata = Long-tailed Pied Magpie, from Latin pica = magpie, jay, Latin varia = varied, Latin vel = with, and Latin caudata = tail.

As of 2019, the IOC World Bird List recognizes three species of Garrulus Jay, two of which are monotypic, Black-headed Jay and Lidth’s Jay, and one is the highly varied, widespread, polytypic Eurasian Jay. The Handbook of Birds of the World, however, classifies a number of subspecies as full species, thus listing Plain-crowned Jay and White-faced Jay at the species level.

Eurasian JayGarrulus glandarius = Acorn-producing Jay – from Latin glans = acorn, and Latin -arius = masculine adjectival suffix modifying the noun acorn into an active qualifier – described by Carl Linnaeus (as Caroli Linnæi) in Systema naturæ (10th edn., Holmiæ: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), i. 106, as Corvus glandarius.

Currently 34 subspecies of Eurasian Jay are recognized:

  • G. g. hibernicus = Irish Jay – for Ireland, from Latin Hibernia = Ireland, with -cus = masculine adjectival suffix – described by English ornithologist Harry Forbes Witherby and German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in ‘The Irish Jay’, British Birds, 4/8 (1911), 234–235 – range: Ireland;
  • G. g. rufitergum = Rufous-backed Jay – from latin rufus = rufous, and Latin tergum = back – described by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1903), 30 – range: Scotland, England, Wales, north-west France;
  • G. g. glandarius – nominate form – ascribed to Linneaus for his description of the protonym Corvus glandarius, above – range: north and central Europe to Ural Mountains;
  • G. g. fasciatus = Banded Jay – from Latin fascia = band, stripe, and Latin -tus = masculine adjectival suffix – described by Alfred Brehm in ‘Vorläufige Zusammenstellung der Vögel Spaniens’, Allgemeine Deutsche Naturhistorische Zeitung, NF 3 (1857), 446 – range: Iberian peninsula;
  • G. g. corsicanus = Corsican Jay – for Corsica, with Latin -nus = masculine adjectival suffix – described by German ornithologist Alfred Laubmann in ‘Zwei neue paläarktische Formen’, Verhandlungen der Ornithologischen Gesellschaft in Bayern, 11/1 (1912), 164 – range: Corsica;
  • G. g. ichnusae = Sardinian Jay – for Sardinia, from Latin Ichnusa = Sardinia – described briefly by German ornithologist Otto Kleinschmidt in ‘Neue Formen von Sardinien’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 11/6 (1903), 92, as Garrulus ichnusae – range: Sardinia;
  • G. g. albipectus = White-breasted Jay – from Latin albus = white, and Latin pectus = breast – described by German ornithologist Otto Kleinschmidt in ‘Eine überraschende neue Häherform’, Falco, 16/4 (1920), 28, as Garrulus albipectus – range: Italy, Sicily, Dalmatian coast;
  • G. g. graecus = Greek Jay – for Greece, from Latin Graecia = Greece, with -cus = masculine adjectival suffix – described by András Keve-Kleiner (as Andrew Kleiner, see note) in ‘A new Jay from the Balkans’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 59/419 (1939), 71 – range: west Balkans, incl. Greece;
  • G. g. ferdinandi = Ferdinand’s Jay – for Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Prince and Tsar Ferdinand I of Bulgaria), with Latin -i = genitive masculine suffix – described by András Keve-Kleiner (as Andreas Keve-Kleiner, see note) in ‘Ein neuer Eichelhäher aus Südost Bulgarien: Garrulus glandarius ferdinandi ssp. n.’, Aquila, 50 (1943), 369–370 – range: east Bulgaria and north Turkey;
  • G. g. cretorum = Cretan Jay – for Crete, with Latin -orum = genitive masculine suffix – described by English ornithologist Richard Meinertzhagen in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 41/253 (1920), 19–20 – range: Crete;
  • G. g. glaszneri = Glaszner’s Jay – for Hungarian ornithologist Káròly Glaszner, with Latin -i = genitive masculine suffix – described by Gyula Madarász (as Julius von Madarász) in ‘Der cyprische Heher (Garrulus glaszneri n. sp.)’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 10/10 (1902), 163, as Garrulus glaszneri [sic] – range: Cyprus;
  • G. g. whitakeri = Whitaker’s Jay – for Sicilian-English ornithologist Joseph Whitaker, with Latin -i = genitive masculine suffix – described by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in Die Vögel der paläarktischen Fauna (Berlin: Friedländer, 1903), 33 – range: north Morocco and north-west Algeria;
  • G. g. minor = Smaller Jay – from Latin minor = smaller – described by French ornithologist Jules Verreaux in Revue et magasin de zoologie pure et appliquée, 2nd ser. 9 (1857) 439–441, as Garrulus minor – range: central Morocco and the Atlas Mountains of north Algeria;
  • G. g. cervicalis Cervical Jay – from Latin cervix = neck, and Latin -alis = masculine adjectival suffix – described by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte (as S.A. Charles–L. prince Bonaparte) in ‘Notes sur les collections de M.A. Delattre‘, Comptes rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des sciences, 37/23 (1853), 828, as Garrulus cervicalis – range: north and north-east Algeria and Tunisia;
  • G. g. samios = Samos Jay – from Latin samios = of Samos – described by Hungarian ornithologist András Keve-Kleiner (as Andreas Kleiner, see note) in ‘Ergänzung zur systematischen Revision des Eichelhähers’, Aquila, 42–45 (1939), 545, 548–549 – range: Samos (south-east Aegean Sea);
  • G. g. anatoliae = Anatolian Jay – for Anatolia, from Greek ανατολιος, anatolios = eastern (i.e. Anatolia, Asia Minor) – described briefly by English ornithologist Henry Seebohm in A History of British Birds (London: R.H. Porter, 1883), i. 570, as Garrulus anatoliæ – range: west Turkey to west Iran and north Iraq;
  • G. g. iphigenia = Iphigenia’s Jay – for Iphigenia, Greek mythological daughter of Agamemnon and Clytemnestra – described by Russian ornithologist Petr Sushin and Ukranian naturalist Jevgenij Ptuschenko in Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 22/1 (1914), 4–5 – range: Crimean Peninsula;
  • G. g. krynicki = Krynicki’s Jay – for Russian zoologist Johann Krynicki (Ivan Andreïevitch Krinitski) – decribed by Jean de Kaleniczenko in “Series animalum, a defuncto Professore Joan. Krynicki’, Bulletin de la Société impériale des naturalistes de Moscou, 12/2 (1839), 217–218, as Garrulus krynicki – range: north-east Turkey, Caucasus;
  • G. g. atricapillus = Black-crowned Jay – from Latin ater = black, and Latin capillus = hair of the head – described by French zoologist Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire in Etudes Zoologiques (Paris: Lequien, 1832), i. pl. 3, as Garrulus atricapillus – range: west Syria, west Jordan, Israel;
  • G. g. hyrcanus = Hyrcanian Jay – for Hyrcania, from Latin hyrcanus = Hyrcania – described by William Thomas Blanford in ‘Descriptions of a new Jay and a new Woodpecker from Persia’, Ibis, 3rd ser. 3/10 (1873), 225–226, as Garrulus hyrcanus – range: south-east Azerbaijan, north Iran;
  • G. g. brandtii = Brandt’s Jay – for Johann Friedrich von Brandt, and Latin -ii = genitive masculine adjectival suffix – described by Eduard Friedrich Eversmann (as Eduardo Eversmann) in Addenda ad celeberrimi pallasii zoographiam rosso-asiaticam, ed. H.E. Dresser (London: Dresser, 1876) iii. 8–9 (first publ. 1842), as Garrulus brandtii – range: south Siberia, north Mongolia, north-west and north-east China, Korea, north Japan;
  • G. g. kansuensis = Gansu Jay – for Gansu Province, and Latin -ensis = adjectival geographical suffix – described by German ornithologist Erwin Stresemann in ‘Neue Formen aus Nord-Kansu II’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 36/2 (1928), 41 – range: central China;
  • G. g. pekingensis = Beijing Jay – for Beijing, and Latin -ensis = adjectival geographical suffix – described briefly in ‘Bericht über die Januarsitzung 1905’, Journal für Ornithologie, 53/2 (1905), 225, as Garrulus bispecularis pekingensis – east China;
  • G. g. japonicus = Japanese Jay – for Japan, and Latin -icus = belonging to, pertaining to – decribed by Dutch ornithologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck and German ornithologist Hermann Schlegel in Ph.Fr. de Siebold [sic], C.J. Temmink, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna japonica (Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Arnz, 1850), iv. 83–84, pl. 43 (plate first publ. 1847) – Siebold had commissioned the text of the Fauna japonica to scientists of the Dutch National Museum of Natural History, it would appear in instalments between 1833 and 1855, Temminck and Schlegel wrote the sections about birds, hence their authorship of this subspecies – range: Honshu, Oshima and Kyushu (central, south Japan);
  • G. g. tokugawae = Tokugawa’s Jay – for Ieyasu Tokugawa, and Latin -e = vocative masculine adjectival suffix – described by Japanese ornithologist Nobusuke Taka-Tsukasa in ‘A new form of Jay from Sado Island’, Tori, 7/32 (1931) 110 – range: Sado Island (off Honshu in central Japan);
  • G. g. orii = Orii’s Jay – for Japanese bird collector Hyojiro Orii – presented to the 271st meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 10 January 1923, by Nagamichi Kuroda, description published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 43/275 (1923), 86–87 – range: Yakushima (south Japan);
  • G. g. sinensis = Chinese Jay – for China, from Latin Sina = China, and Latin -ensis = topographical adjectival suffix (-of a place) – decribed briefly by English biologist Robert Swinhoe in ‘A revised catalogue of the birds of China and its islands, with descriptions of new species, references to former notes, and occasional remarks’, Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1871, 381, as Garrulus sinensis – range: north Myanmar, south and east China;
  • G. g. taivanus = Taiwanese Jay – for Taiwan, from Latin Taivania = Taiwan, and Latin -us = adjectival suffix – described by English ornithologist (a href=”https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Gould”>John Gould in ‘Descriptions of sixteen new species of birds from the island of Formosa, collected by Robert Swinhoe, Esq., Her Majesty’s Vice-Consul at Formosa’, Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London, 1862/3 (1863), 282, as Garrulus taïvanus – range: Taiwan;
  • G. g. bispecularis = Two-mirrored Jay – from Latin bi- = prefix (twice-, double-), Latin speculum = mirror, speculum, and Latin -aris = adjectival suffix (belonging to, pertaining to) – exhibited at a committee meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 23 November 1830, by Irish zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors, description published in Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, 1 (1831), 7 (the Table of Contents lists the description as part of ‘Observations on a collection of birds from the Himalayan mountains, with characters of new genera and species’), as Garrulus bispecularis – HBW considers this a split from Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius, incl. subspecies – range: west Himalayas to west Nepal;
  • G. g. interstinctus = Variegated Jay – from Latin interstinguere = to mark off (with spots, speckles), and Latin -tus = adjectival suffix (provided with) – described by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in ‘Garrulus bispecularis and its allies, with list of all forms of Garrulus‘, Novitates zoologicae, 25/2 (1918), 430, as Garrulus bispecularis interstinctus – range: east Himalayas;
  • G. g. persaturatus = Very Richly Coloured Jay – from Latin prefix per- = very, and Latin saturatus = richly coloured – described by German ornithologist Ernst Hartert in ‘Garrulus bispecularis and its allies, with list of all forms of Garrulus‘, Novitates zoologicae, 25/2 (1918), 430, as Garrulus bispecularis persaturatus – range: north-east India (south Assam);
  • G. g. oatesi = Oates’ Jay – for English naturalist Eugene W. Oates, and Latin -i = genitive masculine suffix – a brief description was sent to the 35th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 20 May 1836, by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe, and published in Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 5/36 (1896), 44, as Garrulus oatesi – range: north-west Myanmar;
  • G. g. haringtoni = Harington’s Jay – for British ornithologist Herbert Hastings Harington, and Latin -i = genitive masculine suffix – exhibited by English ornithologist Richard Bowdler Sharpe at the 116th meeting of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 28 June 1905, on behalf of Robert H.F. Rippon, who submitted the description to Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 15/117 (1905), 97, as Garrulus haringtoni – range: west Myanmar;
  • G. g. leucotis = White-eared Jay – from Greek λευκος, leukos = white, and Greek -ωτις, -ōtis = -eared – English ornithologist Allan Octavian Hume is the author of this subspecies though it is unclear which publication carried the first description, as Garrulus leucotis, either Stray Feathers, 2/4 (1874), 443–444, or ‘New species of birds exhibited and characterized by A.O. Hume, C.B.’, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1874/5 (1874), 106 – in Stray Feathers Hume states that he read a brief description at a 1 May 1874 meeting of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal states that ‘Mr. Ball’ exhibited and read the description on Hume’s behalf – HBW considers this a split from Eurasian Jay Garrulus glandarius – range: central Myanmar to central and south Indochina.

Further, the two monotypic species:

Black-headed JayGarrulus lanceolatus = Lanceolated Jay – from Latin lancea = lance, and Latin -atus = adjectival suffix (indicating possession) – exhibited at a committee meeting of the Zoological Society of London, 23 November 1830, by Irish zoologist Nicholas Aylward Vigors, description published in Proceedings of the Committee of Science and Correspondence of the Zoological Society of London, 1 (1831), 7 (the Table of Contents lists the description as part of ‘Observations on a collection of birds from the Himalayan mountains, with characters of new genera and species’) – range: east Afghanistan and north Pakistan to west Tibet, Nepal and north India.

Lidth’s JayGarrulus lidthi = for Dutch zoologist Theodoor Gerard van Lidth de Jeude, and Latin -i = genitive masculine suffix – described by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte (as Carolo Luciano Bonaparte) in Conspectus generum avium (Lugduni Batavorum: Brill, 1850) i. 376 – HBW lists this species as Amami Jay, for Amami Islands – range: Ryukyu Islands.

Corvidae (Crows 2)

Cyanurus (syn. of Cyanocorax)The name of the crow family as Corvidae was mentioned by English zoologist William Elford Leach (as Corvidæ, which was preference in those days), who used it first in 1820 in the Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum (London: Richard and Arthur Taylor, 1820), 67. Leach was not named as author in the publication itself, though authorship has been assigned to him for being the Assistant Keeper of the Natural History Department of the British Museum, London.

The etymology of Corvidae points to Corvus – from Latin corvus = raven, and the Latin suffix -idae, which is a transliteration of Greek -ίδης (-ídēs), a patronymic suffix.

The IOC World Bird List itemizes the following genera:

Buzzard 1: Buteo

ButeoButeo was first mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historiæ, trans. H. Rackham (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann, 1952), bk. 10, ch. 9, referencing Greek priestess of Delphi Phemonoe, via Aristotle‘s Historia Animalium, published in The Works of Aristotle, eds. J.A. Smith and W.D. Ross, trans. D.W. Thompson (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1910), iv, 592b, 620a. The reference is to triorchis, the bird with three testicles, the flight of which would be used to interpret omens. Pliny regards buteo as the Roman equivalent of triorchis since ‘one perched on an admiral’s ship with good omen’.

In the sixteenth century, Conrad Gessner, the so-called Swiss Pliny, wrote about buteo in his magnum opus Historiæ Animalium (2nd edn., Frankfurt am Main: Excudebat Ioannes Wechelus, 1585; repr. Frankfurt am Main: In Bibliopolio Andreæ Cambieri, 1604), iii, 45–48; as was his wont, Gessner summarizes various names for buteo used in different European regions (more about this in a future post).

As a name for the genus, Buteo was first described by French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède (in full: Bernard-Germain-Étienne de La Ville-sur-Illon, comte de Lacépède), who was curator and chair of zoology at the Jardin des plantes, home of the Muséum national d’histoire naturelle, Paris. Each year he would deliver opening and closing addresses to the academy, which would be published subsequently. The 1799 publication contained a number of lists (tableaux), one of which contained Buteo, ‘Nouvelle table méthodique de la classe des oiseaux’, reprinted in M.A.G. Desmarest (ed.), Œuvres du conte de Lacépède (2nd edn., Brussels: Th. Lejeune, 1833), i, 188–194 at 189.

The boundaries of Buteo are not set in stone. For instance, the additions of Gray and Gray-lined Hawks into Buteo, formerly subspecifics of Asturina nitida, are the latest in the changing taxonomy of the genus. The specific epithets of Buteo list as follows:

  • Grey HawkButeo plagiatus = Striped Buzzard – from Latin plagiatus = striped – first mentioned as Buteo plagiatus by German zoologist Hinrich Lichtenstein in his index of the zoological collection of the Universität zu Berlin, Nomenclator avium Musei zoologici berolinensis (Berlin: Königlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1854), 3, and described by German ornithologist Hermann Schlegel as Asturina plagiata in ‘Asturineae’, Muséum d’histoire naturelle de Pays Bas. Revue méthodique et critique des collections déposées dans cet établissement, 2/6 (1862), 5–6 – long considered subspecific to Asturina nitidus (= Beautiful Goshawk, from Modern Latin asturina = goshawk, and Latin nitidus = brilliant, shining, beautiful), split as a result of 2011 recommendations – range: south-west USA to north-west Costa Rica – Spanish: Busardo gris norteño = Northern Grey Buzzard;
  • Grey-lined HawkButeo nitidus = Beautiful Buzzard – from Latin nitidus = brilliant, shining, beautiful – described by English naturalist John Latham in his Index ornithologicus (London: Leigh and Sotheby, 1790), i, 41, as Falco nitidus – range: Costa Rica to north-central Argentina – Spanish: Busardo gris meridional = Southern Grey Buzzard;
  • Red-shouldered HawkButeo lineatus = Barred Buzzard – from Latin lineatus = marked with lines, lined – described by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in the 1788 edition of Linnaeus’s Systema Naturae of which Gmelin was the editor: Caroli a Linné, Systema Naturae, ed. J.F. Gmelin (13th edn., Leipzig: Georg. Emanuel. Been, 1788), i, 268, as Falco lineatusJohn Latham had already described the species from a collection (read: shot) as Barred-breasted Buzzard in his A General Synopsis of Birds (London: Benjamin White, 1781), i, pt. 1, 56; similarly Welsh naturalist Thomas Pennant had described the species as Red-breasted Falcon in Arctic Zoology (London: Henry Hughs, 1785), ii, 206; however, both had only described the species in English, not binomial – range: west, south-east and central North America, also north-east Mexico – Spanish: Busardo de hombro rojo = Red-shouldered Buzzard;
  • Ridgway’s HawkButeo ridgwayi = Ridgway’s Buzzard – for American ornithologist Robert Ridgway – described by American ornithologist Charles B. Cory in the Quarterly Journal of the Boston Zoölogical Society, 2 (1883), 46, as Rupornis ridgwayi (= Ridgway’s Dirty Bird, from Greek ῥυπος, rhupos = dirt, filth and Greek ορνις, ornis, ορνιθος, ornithos = bird), most likely placed in Rupornis due to the superficial resemblance to Rupornis magnirostris, Roadside Hawk – range: Hispaniola, now Dominican Republic, extinct in Haiti – Dominican Spanish: Guaraguaíto = Little Hawk;
  • Broad-winged HawkButeo platypterus = Broad-winged Buzzard – from Greek πλατυς, platus = broad, and Greek -πτερος, -pteros = -winged – the protonym described by French ornithologist Louis Pierre Vieillot in Pierre Joseph Bonnaterre‘s Tableau encyclopédique et méthodique des trois règnes de la nature. Ornithologie, ed. L.P. Vieillot (Paris: Agasse, 1823), iii, 1273–1274 as Sparvius platypterus (= Broad-winged Sparrowhawk, from Mediaeval Latin sparvius = sparrowhawk) – range: central and east North America, including Caribbean – see note;
  • White-throated HawkButeo albigula = White-throated Buzzard – from Latin albus = white, and Latin gula = throat – described by German zoologist Rodolfo Amando Philippi in Chile in ‘Observaciones críticas sobre algunos pájaros chilenos i descripcion de algunas especies nuevas’, Análes de la Universidad, 103 (1899), 664, and in the same year in Germany in ‘Kritische Bemerkungen über einige Vögel Chiles’, Archiv für Naturgeschichte, 65 (1899), 170 – range: west South America – Spanish: Aguilucho andino (Argentina) = Andean Hawk, Aguilucho chico (Chile) = Little Hawk;
  • Short-tailed HawkButeo brachyurus = Short-tailed Hawk – from Greek βραχυς, brakhus = short, and Greek -ουρος, -ouros = -tailed – described by French ornithologist Louis Pierre Vieillot in Nouveau dictionnaire d’histoire naturelle (1816) iv, 477 – range: Latin America, including Florida – Spanish (variations on): Gavilán colicorto (Middle America) = Short-tailed Hawk, Aguilucho cola corta (South America) = Short-tailed Hawk;
  • Hawaiian HawkButeo solitarius = Solitary Buzzard – from Latin solitarius = solitary – described by American naturalist Titian Peale in his United States Exploring Expedition: Mamalogy and Ornithology (Philadelphia, PA: C. Sherman, 1849), viii, 62 – even though Peale’s protonym stands, on a side note American explorer Charles Wilkes who claimed copyright on all the US Exploring Expedition works fell out with Peale and replaced his volume with one by American ornithologist John Cassin: United States Exploring Expedition: Mamalogy and Ornithology (Philadelphia, PA: J.B. Lippincott, 1858), viii, 97–98, in which the species has become Pandion solitarius (= Solitary Osprey, from Greek pandion = (interpreted as and attributed to) osprey) though still ascribed to Peale – range: Hawaiian Islands – Hawaiian: ‘Io = Hawk;
  • Swainson’s HawkButeo swainsoni = Swainson’s Buzzard – for English ornithologist Willam Swainson – listed by French ornithologist Charles Lucien Bonaparte in his A Geographical and Comparative List of the Birds of Europe and North America (London: John Van Voorst, 1838), 3, after plate 372 (Common Buzzard, 1837) by American ornithologist John James Audubon, who identified the specimen as Common Buzzard (Buteo vulgaris, now obsolete) – range: North and Middle America;
  • Galapagos HawkButeo galapagoensis = Galapagos Buzzard – for the Galápagos Islands – described by English ornithologist John Gould in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 5 (1837), 9, as Polyborus galapagoensis (= Galapagos Greedy Bird, from Greek πολυβορος, poluboros = voracious, greedy), the type specimen collected by Charles Darwin – range: Galápagos Islands – Spanish: Gavilán de Galápagos = Galapagos Hawk;
  • Zone-tailed HawkButeo albonotatus = White-marked Buzzard – from Latin albus = white, and Latin notatus = marked – mentioned and described very briefly by German naturalist Johann Jakob von Kaup in ‘Monographien der Genera der Falconidea’, Isis von Oken, 1847, 329, the type specimen had been given the albonotatus label by English zoologist George Robert Gray in the British Museum – range: North America (south USA) and Latin America – Spanish (varied): Aguililla aura (Mexico) = Vulture Hawk, Aguilucho negro (Argentina) = Black Hawk, Portuguese (Brazil): Gavião preto = Black Hawk;
  • Red-tailed HawkButeo jamaicensis = Jamaican Buzzard – for Jamaica – described by German naturalist Johann Friedrich Gmelin in Caroli a Linné, Systema Naturae, ed. Jo. Frid. Gmelin (Leipzig: Georg. Emanuel Beer, 1788), i, 266, as Falco jamaicensis – range: North and Middle America (including Caribbean) – Spanish (Mexico): Águila colirrojo = Red-tailed Hawk;
  • Rufous-tailed HawkButeo ventralis = Ventral Buzzard – from Latin ventralis = of the belly, ventral – described by English ornithologist John Gould in Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 5 (1837), 10 – range: south Chile and south-west Argentina – Spanish: Aguilucho de cola rojiza = Rusty-tailed Hawk;
  • Ferruginous HawkButeo regalis = Royal Buzzard – from Latin regalis = royal – listed by English zoologist George Robert Gray in his The Genera of Birds (London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1844), i, 12, as Archibuteo regalis (= Royal Arch-buzzard, from Greek αρχων arkhōn = chief) – range: south-central Canada to west-central USA;
  • Rough-legged BuzzardButeo lagopus = Hare-footed Buzzard – from Greek λαγως, lagōs = hare, and Greek πους, pous or ποδος, podos = foot – described by Danish zoologist Morten Thrane Brünnich in his Den danske atlas eller konge-riget Dannemark, med dets naturlige egenskaber, elementer, indbyggere, vaexter, dyr og andre affodninger, 616, as Falco lagopus – range: Eurasia and North America;
  • Upland BuzzardButeo hemilasius = Semi-hairy Buzzard – from Greek ἡμι-, hēmi- = half-, and Greek λασιος, lasios = hairy, shaggy – described by Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck and German ornithologist Hermann Schlegel in Ph.F. de Siebold, C.J. Temminck, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna Japonica (Lugduni Batavorum: Apud Arnz, 1845), iv, 18–20 – range: central and south-central Asia to south-east Siberia and north-east China – Russian: Мохноногий курганник = Rough-legged Buzzard, Chinese: 大鵟 = Great Buzzard;
  • Eastern BuzzardButeo japonicus = Japanese Buzzard – for Japan – described by Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck and German ornithologist Hermann Schlegel in Ph.F. de Siebold, C.J. Temminck, H. Schlegel and W. de Haan, Fauna Japonica (Leiden: Apud Arnz, 1850), iv, 16–18, as Faclo buteo japonicus [sic] – split from Buteo buteo (2008 recommendations) – range: central and south Siberia, Mongolia, north-east China, Japan – Russian: Восточный канюк = Eastern Buzzard, Chinese: 普通鵟 = Common Buzzard, Japanese: ノスリ = Common Buzzard;
  • Himalayan BuzzardButeo burmanicus = Burmese Buzzard – for Myanmar (Burma) – mentioned by English ornithologist Allan Octavian Hume in his ‘A first List of the Birds of Upper Pegu’, Stray Feathers, 3 (1875), 30 – split from Buteo buteo (2008 recommendations), after which a debate ensued regarding various type specimen and senior synonyms, whether B. burmanicus is the right name for the right specimen, or whether this should be B. refectus (= Restored Buzzard, from Latin refectus = restored) or B. plumipes (= Feather-footed Buzzard, from Latin pluma = plume, small feather and Latin pes, pedis = foot), B. burmanicus is now the agreed specific – range: Himalayas;
  • Long-legged BuzzardButeo rufinus = Golden Buzzard – from medieval Latin rufinus = golden, golden-red – described by German physician Philipp Jakob Cretzschmar in Eduard Rüppell, Atlas zu der Reise im nördlichen Afrika: Vögel, ed. Ph.J. Cretzschmar (Frankfurt am Main: Heinr. Ludw. Brönner, 1826), 40–41, as Falco rufinus – range: Eurasia and north Africa;
  • Cape Verde BuzzardButeo bannermani = Bannerman’s Buzzard – for Scottisch ornithologist David Armitage Bannerman – described by Harry Kirke Swann in his A Synoptical List of the Accipitres (Diurnal Birds of Prey) (London: John Wheldon, 1919), ii, 44, as Buteo buteo bannermani – split from Buteo buteo (2000 recommendations) – range: Cape Verde Islands – Portuguese (Cape Verde): Asa-curta = Short-wing.
  • Socotra BuzzardButeo socotraensis = Socotra Buzzard – for the Socotra Archipelago – described by R.F. Porter and Guy M. Kirwan in their ‘Studies of Socotran birds VI: The taxonomic status of the Socotran Buzzard’, Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 130 (2010), 116–131 – subsequently split from Buteo buteo (2010 recommendations) – range: Socotra Archipelago;
  • Common BuzzardButeo buteo = Buzzard – from Latin buteo = buzzard – decribed by Carl Linneaus in his Systema naturæ (10th edn., Stockholm: Laurentii Salvii, 1758), 90, as Falco buteo – range: Eurasia;
  • Forest BuzzardButeo trizonatus = Triple-banded Buzzard – from Latin tri- = three-, and Modern Latin zonatus = banded – described by Swedish zoologist Gustaf Rudebeck in Bertil Hanström, Per Brinck and Gustaf Rudebeck (eds) South African Animal Life: Results of the Lund University Expedition in 1950–1951 (Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell, 1957) iv, 416, as Buteo buteo trizonatus – split from Buteo oreophilus (2007 recommendations) – range: south and east South Africa – Afrikaans: Bosjakkalsvoël = Forest Jackal Bird;
  • Mountain BuzzardButeo oreophilus = Mountain-loving Buzzard – from Greek ορεος, oreos = mountain, and Greek φιλος, philos = loving – described by German ornithologists Ernst Hartert and Oscar Neumann in their ‘Ein bisher verkannter Bussard Buteo oreophilus sp. nov.’, Ornithologische Monatsberichte, 22 (1914), 31–33 – range: Ethiopia to north Malawi – Kiswahili: Shakivale-mlima = Mountain Buzzard;
  • Archer’s BuzzardButeo archeri = Archer’s Buzzard – for English ornithologist Geoffrey Archer – described by English zoologist Philip Sclater in his ‘Exhibition and descrion of a new subspecies of Buzzard, Buteo jackal archeri, from Somaliland’, Bulletin of the Bristish Ornithologists’ Club, 39 (1918), 17–18, as Buteo jakal archeri (= Archer’s Jackal Buzzard, from French chacal = jackal) – split from Buteo augur (2003 recommendation) – range: north Somalia;
  • Red-necked BuzzardButeo auguralis = Augur-like Buzzard – from Buteo auger, and Latin -alis = pertaining to – described by Italian ornithologist Tommaso Salvadori in his ‘Descrizione di altre nuove specie di uccelli esistenti nel Museo de Torino: nota seconda’, Atti della Società italiana di scienze naturali, 8 (1865), 376–377 – range: Sierra Leone to Ethiopia, Uganda and Angola;
  • Madagascan BuzzardButeo brachypterus = Short-winged Buzzard – from Greek βραχυς, brakhus = short, and Greek -πτερος, -pteros = -winged – described by German ornithologist Gustav Hartlaub in his ‘Systematische Uebersicht der Vögel Madagascars’, Journal für Ornithologie, 43 (1860), 11–12 – range: Madagascar – Malagasy: Bobaky = Buzzard;
  • Augur BuzzardButeo augur = Augur Buzzard – from Latin augur = augur, soothsayer – described by German naturalist Eduard Rüppell in his Neue Wirbelthiere zu der Fauna von Abyssinien gehörig: Vögel (Frankfurt am Main: Siegmund Schmerber, 1836), 38–39, as Falco (Buteo) augur – range: Ethiopia and Somalia to Zimbabwe and central Angola to central Namibia – Kiswahili: Shakivale Mkia-mwekundu = Red-tailed Buzzard, Afrikaans: Witborsjakkalsvoël = White-breasted Jackal Bird;
  • Jackal BuzzardButeo rufofuscus = Rufous-brown Buzzard – from Latin rufus = rufous, and Latin fuscus = brown, dusky – described by Polish naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster in his F. le Vaillant’s Naturgeschichte der afrikanischen Vögel (Halle: Fried. Christoph Dreyssig, 1798), 59–62, as Falco rufofuscus – range: Namibia and South Africa.